Abstract

Whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microcavities are very important in both fundamental science and practical applications, among which on-chip second-order nonlinear microresonators play an important role in integrated photonic functionalities. Here we demonstrate resonant second-harmonic generation (SHG) and cascaded third-harmonic generation (THG) in a lithium niobate-on-insulator (LNOI) microdisk resonator. Efficient SHG in the visible range was obtained with only several mW input powers at telecom wavelengths. THG was also observed through a cascading process, which reveals simultaneous phase matching and strong mode coupling in the resonator. Cascading of second-order nonlinear processes gives rise to an effectively large third-order nonlinearity, which makes on-chip second-order nonlinear microresonators a promising frequency converter for integrated nonlinear photonics.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (5)

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[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 014002 (2016).
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J. Wang, B. Zhu, Z. Hao, F. Bo, X. Wang, F. Gao, Y. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, Opt. Express 24, 21869 (2016).
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2015 (3)

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58, 114209 (2015).

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2014 (4)

D. V. Strekalov, A. S. Kowligy, Y. P. Huang, and P. Kumar, New J. Phys. 16, 053025 (2014).
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C. Wang, M. J. Burek, Z. Lin, H. A. Atikian, V. Venkataraman, I. Huang, P. Stark, and M. Lončar, Opt. Express 22, 30924 (2014).
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D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 093901 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Gunter, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 488 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Lin, J. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, I. S. Grudinin, and N. Yu, Opt. Express 20, 21372 (2012).
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2011 (3)

2010 (2)

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
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2009 (2)

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2007 (2)

2006 (1)

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[Crossref]

2004 (1)

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[Crossref]

Aiello, A.

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Andersen, U. L.

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Anderson, U. L.

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Andronico, A.

Atikian, H. A.

Barclay, P. E.

D. P. Lake, M. Mitchell, H. Jayakumar, L. F. dos Santos, D. Curic, and P. E. Barclay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 031109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barucci, A.

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 093901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berneschi, S.

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 093901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bo, F.

Bravo-Abad, J.

P. S. Kuo, J. Bravo-Abad, and G. S. Solomon, Nat. Commun. 5, 3109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Burek, M. J.

Carmon, T.

J. Moore, M. Tomes, T. Carmon, and M. Jarrahi, Opt. Express 19, 24139 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Moore, M. Tomes, T. Carmon, and M. Jarrahi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221111 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, Nat. Phys. 3, 430 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58, 114209 (2015).

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
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Chu, C. H.

Curic, D.

D. P. Lake, M. Mitchell, H. Jayakumar, L. F. dos Santos, D. Curic, and P. E. Barclay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 031109 (2016).
[Crossref]

dos Santos, L. F.

D. P. Lake, M. Mitchell, H. Jayakumar, L. F. dos Santos, D. Curic, and P. E. Barclay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 031109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ducci, S.

Elser, D.

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fang, W.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58, 114209 (2015).

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58, 114209 (2015).

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref]

Farnesi, D.

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 093901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Favero, I.

Foster, M.

Furst, J. U.

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fürst, J.

Gaeta, A.

Gao, F.

Grudinin, I. S.

G. Lin, J. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, I. S. Grudinin, and N. Yu, Opt. Express 20, 21372 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gunter, P.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Gunter, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Hao, Z.

Hu, H.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Gunter, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, I.

Huang, Y. P.

D. V. Strekalov, A. S. Kowligy, Y. P. Huang, and P. Kumar, New J. Phys. 16, 053025 (2014).
[Crossref]

IIchenko, V. S.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. IIchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. B 74, 4070 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jarrahi, M.

J. Moore, M. Tomes, T. Carmon, and M. Jarrahi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221111 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Moore, M. Tomes, T. Carmon, and M. Jarrahi, Opt. Express 19, 24139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jayakumar, H.

D. P. Lake, M. Mitchell, H. Jayakumar, L. F. dos Santos, D. Curic, and P. E. Barclay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 031109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kowligy, A. S.

D. V. Strekalov, A. S. Kowligy, Y. P. Huang, and P. Kumar, New J. Phys. 16, 053025 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kumar, P.

D. V. Strekalov, A. S. Kowligy, Y. P. Huang, and P. Kumar, New J. Phys. 16, 053025 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kuo, P. S.

P. S. Kuo, J. Bravo-Abad, and G. S. Solomon, Nat. Commun. 5, 3109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lake, D. P.

D. P. Lake, M. Mitchell, H. Jayakumar, L. F. dos Santos, D. Curic, and P. E. Barclay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 031109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lassen, M.

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lemaitre, A.

Leo, G.

Leuchs, G.

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Levy, J.

Li, J.

Li, W.

Li, Y.

Lin, C. Y.

Lin, G.

Lin, J.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58, 114209 (2015).

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, Z.

Lipson, M.

Loncar, M.

Maleki, L.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043902 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. IIchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. B 74, 4070 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mariani, S.

Marquardt, C.

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. U. Furst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 153901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043902 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. IIchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. B 74, 4070 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mauguin, O.

Mitchell, M.

D. P. Lake, M. Mitchell, H. Jayakumar, L. F. dos Santos, D. Curic, and P. E. Barclay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 031109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Moore, J.

J. Moore, M. Tomes, T. Carmon, and M. Jarrahi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221111 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Moore, M. Tomes, T. Carmon, and M. Jarrahi, Opt. Express 19, 24139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ni, J.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nunzi Conti, G.

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 093901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Poberaj, G.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Gunter, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qiao, L.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58, 114209 (2015).

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref]

Righini, G. C.

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 093901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sasagawa, K.

K. Sasagawa and M. Tsuchiya, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 122401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. IIchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. B 74, 4070 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schwefel, H. G. L.

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sohler, W.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Gunter, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Solomon, G. S.

P. S. Kuo, J. Bravo-Abad, and G. S. Solomon, Nat. Commun. 5, 3109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soria, S.

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 093901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Spillane, S. M.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stark, P.

Strekalov, D.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. IIchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. B 74, 4070 (2006).
[Crossref]

Strekalov, D. V.

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. V. Strekalov, A. S. Kowligy, Y. P. Huang, and P. Kumar, New J. Phys. 16, 053025 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Lin, J. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, I. S. Grudinin, and N. Yu, Opt. Express 20, 21372 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup and imaging of the LNOI microdisk. (a) Schematic illustration of the experimental setup. (b) Optical microscope image of the microdisk. (c) SEM image of the LNOI microdisk, showing smooth sidewalls. (d) Calculated transverse intensity profile of the fundamental TE mode at 1551 nm. Arrow indicates the direction of the electric field.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical characterization of the LNOI microdisk. (a) Transmission spectrum of the microdisk at telecom wavelengths at low powers, showing an FSR of 14.3 nm. (b) Zoomed-in view of the resonance at 1551 nm, corresponding to the fundamental TE mode. (c) Numerically calculated dispersion relationship of the LNOI microdisk. Diameter is 25 μm in the simulation. Fundamental TE mode of FW matches that of higher-order SH in a wide range and that of TH at the crossing point marked in the dotted ellipse.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SHG in LNOI microdisk. (a) Spectrum of the generated SH, showing the peak of SHG at 775.7 nm. Inset: image of scattered SHG showing light travelling along the circumference of the LNOI microdisk (upper) and simulated transverse intensity profile of the SH wave (lower). (b) Input–output power dependence and corresponding quadratic fit.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Cascaded THG in LNOI microdisk. (a) Spectrum of harmonic generation in LNOI microdisk shows peaks of SHG and THG at 516.5 nm and 775.7 nm, respectively. Inset: image of the scattered SHG and THG (upper left), scattered THG after short-pass filtering (upper right), and simulated transverse intensity profile of the TH mode (lower). (b) SH–TH power dependence and corresponding exponential fit. Range corresponds to pump power varying from 0 to 20 mW.