Abstract

A silicon nitride waveguide is a promising platform for integrated photonics, particularly due to its low propagation loss compared to other complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible waveguides, including silicon-on-insulator. Input/output coupling in such thin optical waveguides is a key issue for practical implementations. Fiber-to-chip grating couplers in silicon nitride usually exhibit low coupling efficiency because the moderate index contrast leads to weak radiation strengths and poor directionality. Here, we present the first, to the best of our knowledge, experimental demonstration of a recently proposed apodized-imaging fiber-to-chip grating coupler in silicon nitride that images an in-plane waveguide mode to an optical fiber placed at a specific distance above the chip. By employing amplitude and phase apodization, the diffracted optical field of the grating is matched to the fiber mode. High grating directionality is achieved by using staircase grating teeth, which produce a blazing effect. Experimental results demonstrate an apodized-imaging grating coupler with a record coupling efficiency of 1.5  dB and a 3 dB bandwidth of 60 nm in the C-band.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (3)

C. Poulton, M. Byrd, M. Raval, Z. Su, N. Li, E. Timurdogan, D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. Watts, Opt. Lett. 42, 21 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. K. Mehta and R. J. Ram, Sci. Rep. 7, 2019 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, J. Phys. D 50, 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (3)

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 7, 597 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Bauters, M. Davenport, M. Heck, J. Doylend, A. Chen, A. Fang, and J. Bowers, Opt. Express 21, 544 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 459, 550 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Atabaki, A.

M. T. Wade, F. Pavanello, R. Kumar, C. M. Gentry, A. Atabaki, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015), pp. 46–47.

Baets, R.

Bauters, J.

Benedikovic, D.

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

Bowers, J.

Bucio, T. D.

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, J. Phys. D 50, 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L. L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Byrd, M.

Camacho, R.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 459, 550 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

Chan, J.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 459, 550 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

Chen, A.

Chen, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y.-K.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Claes, T.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[Crossref]

Coolbaugh, D.

Dado, M.

Dave, U.

Davenport, M.

De Groote, A.

Dhakal, A.

Diddams, A.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ding, L.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Doylend, J.

Eichenfield, M.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 459, 550 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fan, M.

M. Fan, M. Popovic, and F. Kaertner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuDD3.

Fang, A.

Fédéli, J.

Fung, C. K. Y.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 7, 597 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, J. Phys. D 50, 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gaylord, T.

Gentry, C. M.

M. T. Wade, F. Pavanello, R. Kumar, C. M. Gentry, A. Atabaki, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015), pp. 46–47.

Giannone, D.

Glytsis, E.

Griol, A.

Gylfason, K.

Halir, R.

He, J.

Heck, M.

Hens, Z.

Hill, D.

Holzwarth, R.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Janz, S.

Jayatilleka, H.

Kaertner, F.

M. Fan, M. Popovic, and F. Kaertner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuDD3.

Kazmierczak, A.

Khokhar, A. Z.

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, J. Phys. D 50, 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kumar, R.

M. T. Wade, F. Pavanello, R. Kumar, C. M. Gentry, A. Atabaki, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015), pp. 46–47.

Kuyken, B.

Lacava, C.

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, J. Phys. D 50, 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Laere, F. V.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lapointe, J.

Le Thomas, N.

Leo, F.

Li, C.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, N.

Lipson, M.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 7, 597 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.

Lo, S. M. G.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maire, G.

Malik, A.

Marris-Morini, D.

Martens, D.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, J. Phys. D 50, 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mehta, K. K.

K. K. Mehta and R. J. Ram, Sci. Rep. 7, 2019 (2017).
[Crossref]

Molina-Fernández, I.

Molina-Fernández, Í.

Moñux, A. O.

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. O. Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Morandotti, R.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 7, 597 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moss, D. J.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 7, 597 (2013).
[Crossref]

Muneeb, M.

O’Faolain, L.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ortega-Moñux, A.

Painter, O.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 459, 550 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pathak, S.

Pavanello, F.

M. T. Wade, F. Pavanello, R. Kumar, C. M. Gentry, A. Atabaki, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015), pp. 46–47.

Petropoulos, P.

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, J. Phys. D 50, 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Peyskens, F.

Poon, J.

Popovic, M.

M. Fan, M. Popovic, and F. Kaertner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuDD3.

Popovic, M. A.

M. T. Wade, F. Pavanello, R. Kumar, C. M. Gentry, A. Atabaki, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015), pp. 46–47.

Poulton, C.

Ram, R.

M. T. Wade, F. Pavanello, R. Kumar, C. M. Gentry, A. Atabaki, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015), pp. 46–47.

Ram, R. J.

K. K. Mehta and R. J. Ram, Sci. Rep. 7, 2019 (2017).
[Crossref]

Raval, M.

Roelkens, G.

Ruocco, A.

Ryckeboer, E.

Sacher, W.

Sanchez, B.

Sattler, G.

Scheerlinck, S.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J.

Schmid, J. H.

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. O. Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schrauwen, J.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sohlström, H.

Stankovic, S.

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, J. Phys. D 50, 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Stojanovic, V.

M. T. Wade, F. Pavanello, R. Kumar, C. M. Gentry, A. Atabaki, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015), pp. 46–47.

Su, Z.

Subramanian, A.

Taillaert, D.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[Crossref]

Taylor, B.

Thourhout, D. V.

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[Crossref]

Timurdogan, E.

Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 459, 550 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Dorpe, P.

Van Thourhout, D.

Vermeulen, D.

Vivien, L.

Wade, M. T.

M. T. Wade, F. Pavanello, R. Kumar, C. M. Gentry, A. Atabaki, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015), pp. 46–47.

Wang, S.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J.

Watts, M.

Wuytens, P.

Xie, W.

Xu, D.

Xu, D. X.

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. O. Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

F. V. Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1919 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1156 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, J. Phys. D 50, 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. O. Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Photonics 7, 597 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, Nature 459, 550 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Photon. Res. (1)

Sci. Rep. (1)

K. K. Mehta and R. J. Ram, Sci. Rep. 7, 2019 (2017).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M. T. Wade, F. Pavanello, R. Kumar, C. M. Gentry, A. Atabaki, R. Ram, V. Stojanović, and M. A. Popović, IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015), pp. 46–47.

M. Fan, M. Popovic, and F. Kaertner, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuDD3.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

2D schematics of the self-imaging grating coupler.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fabrication process diagram of the self-imaging grating coupler: (a) the Si3N4 layer deposition, (b) waveguide etching, (c) shallow trench etching, and (d) deep groove etching.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of (a) the self-imaging grating coupler, (b) the top, (c) the angled view of the staircase region, and (d) the cross-sectional view of the self-imaging grating coupler.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) General test structure, (b) photograph of the grating coupler test set-up, and (c) the measured coupling efficiency of the fabricated grating coupler compared to the 2D-FDTD simulation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) 3 dB bandwidth and (b) coupling efficiency as a function of the height of the fiber end above the chip plane.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured coupling efficiency of the self-imaging surface grating coupler as a function of the fiber tilt angle. The fiber end face is positioned 120 μm above the chip plane.

Equations (1)

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n0Λsinθk=nBΛmλ,

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