Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate mid-infrared (MIR) supercontinuum (SC) generation spanning 2.0 to 15.1 μm in a 3 cm-long chalcogenide step-index fiber. The pump source is generated by the difference frequency generation with a pulse width of 170  fs, a repetition rate of 1000  Hz, and a wavelength range tunable from 2.4 to 11 μm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the broadest MIR SC generation observed so far in optical fibers. It facilitates fiber-based applications in sensing, medical, and biological imaging areas.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (4)

2014 (7)

2013 (2)

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A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

P. Cimalla, J. Walther, M. Mittasch, and E. Koch, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116020 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. S. Liao, G. S. Qin, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 194 (2011).
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B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

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[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2000 (2)

1998 (1)

M. G. Allen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545 (1998).
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1976 (1)

C. Lin and R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 216 (1976).
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Abdel-Moneim, N.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, Nat. Photonics 8, 830 (2014).
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[Crossref]

Bang, O.

Ben Salem, A.

A. Ben Salem, R. Cherif, and M. Zghal, “Raman response of a highly nonlinear As2Se3-based chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber,” in PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh, Morocco, March20–23, 2011, p. 1256.

Benson, T.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, Nat. Photonics 8, 830 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Benson, T. M.

Birks, T. A.

Brilland, L.

Calvez, L.

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Chartier, T.

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Cheng, T. L.

Cheong, S. W.

Cherif, R.

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Coulombier, Q.

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Deng, D.

Deng, D. H.

Domachuk, P.

Duan, Z.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006).
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Duhant, M.

Dupont, S.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, Nat. Photonics 8, 830 (2014).
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Y. Yu, B. Zhang, X. Gai, C. Zhai, S. Qi, W. Guo, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Lett. 40, 1081 (2015).
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A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
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Hwang, H. Y.

Joshi, C.

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T. L. Cheng, Y. Kanou, X. J. Xue, D. H. Deng, M. Matsumoto, T. Misumi, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Opt. Express 22, 13322 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. L. Cheng, Y. Kanou, K. Asano, D. H. Deng, M. S. Liao, Y. Kanou, M. Matsumoto, T. Misumi, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 121911 (2014).
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T. L. Cheng, Y. Kanou, K. Asano, D. H. Deng, M. S. Liao, Y. Kanou, M. Matsumoto, T. Misumi, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 121911 (2014).
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Kawashima, H.

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G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
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Koch, E.

P. Cimalla, J. Walther, M. Mittasch, and E. Koch, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116020 (2011).
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Kubat, I.

Kumar, A.

Lamrini, S.

Lenz, G.

Li, L.

B. Zhang, W. Guo, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, A. Yang, L. Li, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98, 1389 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liao, M.

Liao, M. S.

T. L. Cheng, Y. Kanou, K. Asano, D. H. Deng, M. S. Liao, Y. Kanou, M. Matsumoto, T. Misumi, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 121911 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. S. Liao, G. S. Qin, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 194 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

C. Lin and R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 216 (1976).
[Crossref]

Lines, M. E.

Luther-Davies, B.

B. Zhang, W. Guo, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, A. Yang, L. Li, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98, 1389 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, B. Zhang, X. Gai, C. Zhai, S. Qi, W. Guo, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Lett. 40, 1081 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Madden, S.

Matsumoto, M.

Mechin, D.

Méchin, D.

Messaddeq, Y.

Michalska, M.

Misumi, T.

Mittasch, M.

P. Cimalla, J. Walther, M. Mittasch, and E. Koch, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116020 (2011).
[Crossref]

Møller, U.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, Nat. Photonics 8, 830 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Kubat, C. S. Agger, U. Møller, A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, D. Furniss, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, B. Napier, M. Farries, J. Ward, P. M. Moselund, and O. Bang, Opt. Express 22, 19169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Møller, U. V.

Monro, T. M.

Moselund, P. M.

Napier, B.

Ohishi, Y.

Omenetto, F. G.

Petersen, C. R.

I. Kubat, C. R. Petersen, U. V. Møller, A. Seddon, T. Benson, L. Brilland, D. Méchin, P. M. Moselund, and O. Bang, Opt. Express 22, 3959 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, Nat. Photonics 8, 830 (2014).
[Crossref]

Picque, N.

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pigeon, J. J.

Qi, S.

B. Zhang, W. Guo, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, A. Yang, L. Li, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98, 1389 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, B. Zhang, X. Gai, C. Zhai, S. Qi, W. Guo, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Lett. 40, 1081 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qin, G.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qin, G. S.

Ramsay, J.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, Nat. Photonics 8, 830 (2014).
[Crossref]

Renard, W.

Renversez, G.

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Russell, P. J.

Saini, T. S.

Sanghera, J.

Sanghera, J. S.

Schliesser, A.

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scholle, K.

Seddon, A.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, Nat. Photonics 8, 830 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Kubat, C. R. Petersen, U. V. Møller, A. Seddon, T. Benson, L. Brilland, D. Méchin, P. M. Moselund, and O. Bang, Opt. Express 22, 3959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seddon, A. B.

Shaw, L. B.

Sinha, R. K.

Slusher, R. E.

Smektala, F.

Spälter, S.

Stolen, R. H.

C. Lin and R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 216 (1976).
[Crossref]

Sujecki, S.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, Nat. Photonics 8, 830 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Kubat, C. S. Agger, U. Møller, A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, D. Furniss, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, B. Napier, M. Farries, J. Ward, P. M. Moselund, and O. Bang, Opt. Express 22, 19169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, T.

Swiderski, J.

Tang, D.

B. Zhang, W. Guo, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, A. Yang, L. Li, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98, 1389 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tang, Z.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, Nat. Photonics 8, 830 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Kubat, C. S. Agger, U. Møller, A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, D. Furniss, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, B. Napier, M. Farries, J. Ward, P. M. Moselund, and O. Bang, Opt. Express 22, 19169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tao, G.

B. Zhang, W. Guo, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, A. Yang, L. Li, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98, 1389 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tochitsky, Y. S.

Toupin, P.

Troles, J.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Walther, J.

P. Cimalla, J. Walther, M. Mittasch, and E. Koch, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116020 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, A.

Wang, R.

B. Zhang, W. Guo, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, A. Yang, L. Li, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98, 1389 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, B. Zhang, X. Gai, C. Zhai, S. Qi, W. Guo, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Lett. 40, 1081 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ward, J.

White, R. T.

Wolchover, N. A.

Xue, X. J.

Yan, X.

M. S. Liao, G. S. Qin, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 194 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, A.

B. Zhang, W. Guo, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, A. Yang, L. Li, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98, 1389 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

B. Zhang, W. Guo, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, A. Yang, L. Li, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98, 1389 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, B. Zhang, X. Gai, C. Zhai, S. Qi, W. Guo, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Lett. 40, 1081 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, B. Zhang, X. Gai, C. Zhai, S. Qi, W. Guo, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Lett. 40, 1081 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, W. Guo, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, A. Yang, L. Li, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98, 1389 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, W.

W. Yuan, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 095107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zghal, M.

A. Ben Salem, R. Cherif, and M. Zghal, “Raman response of a highly nonlinear As2Se3-based chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber,” in PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh, Morocco, March20–23, 2011, p. 1256.

Zhai, C.

B. Zhang, W. Guo, Y. Yu, C. Zhai, S. Qi, A. Yang, L. Li, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Tang, G. Tao, and B. Luther-Davies, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98, 1389 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, B. Zhang, X. Gai, C. Zhai, S. Qi, W. Guo, Z. Yang, R. Wang, D. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, Opt. Lett. 40, 1081 (2015).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Measured refractive indices of As2Se3 (core) and AsSe2 (cladding) as well as calculated NA. (b) Calculated dispersions for the fundamental mode of the chalcogenide step-index fiber with the core diameter changing from 11 to 17 μm. (c) Calculated confinement losses of the chalcogenide step-index fiber with the core diameter changing from 11 to 17 μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Photos of the AsSe2 tube, the As2Se3 rod, and the elongated As2Se3 rod. (b) Measured transmission spectrum of a 2-mm-thick As2Se3 sample and the As2Se3 rod loss. (c) Cross section of the chalcogenide step-index fiber taken by SEM. (d) Calculated effective mode areas and nonlinear coefficients of the fundamental mode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Experimental setup for MIR SC generation in the 3 cm-long chalcogenide step-index fiber. LPF: long-pass filter; PM: parabolic mirror. (b) DFG average powers at different wavelengths.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured MIR SC spectrum in the 3 cm-long chalcogenide step-index fiber at the pump wavelength of 9.8  μm with the peak power of 2.89  MW.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulation MIR SC generation at the pump wavelength of 9.8  μm with the peak power of 2.89  MW.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Parameters Used for Simulation MIR SC Generation in the Chalcogenide Step-index Fiber

Equations (2)

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R(t)=(1fr)δ(t)+frhR(t),
hR(t)=τ12+π22τ1τ22exp(tτ2)sin(tτ1).

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