Abstract

We characterize an Er:fiber laser frequency comb that is passively carrier envelope phase-stabilized via difference frequency generation at a wavelength of 1550 nm. A generic method to measure the comb linewidth at different wavelengths is demonstrated. By transferring the properties of a comb line to a cw external cavity diode laser, the phase noise is subsequently measured by tracking the delayed self-heterodyne beat note. This relatively simple characterization method is suitable for a broad range of optical frequencies. Here, it is used to characterize our difference frequency generation (DFG) comb over nearly an optical octave. With repetition-rate stabilization, a radiofrequency reference oscillator limited linewidth is achieved. A lock to an optical reference shows out-of-loop linewidths of the comb at the hertz level. The phase noise measurements are in excellent agreement with the elastic tape model with a fix point at zero frequency.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2004 (2)

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2000 (1)

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1998 (1)

A. de Bohan, P. Antoine, D. B. Milošević, and B. Piraux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837 (1998).
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1993 (1)

1980 (1)

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
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Anderson, A.

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Antoine, P.

A. de Bohan, P. Antoine, D. B. Milošević, and B. Piraux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837 (1998).
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Assion, A.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
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Bartels, A.

Benedick, A. J.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kartner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, Nature 452, 610 (2008).
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Brahimi, H.

Brida, D.

Cundiff, S. T.

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[Crossref]

de Bohan, A.

A. de Bohan, P. Antoine, D. B. Milošević, and B. Piraux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837 (1998).
[Crossref]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Di Domenico, G.

Diddams, S.

Diddams, S. A.

Fehrenbacher, D.

Fendel, P.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kartner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, Nature 452, 610 (2008).
[Crossref]

Frei, H.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[Crossref]

Glenday, A. G.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kartner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, Nature 452, 610 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gohle, C.

Grasbon, F.

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Grebing, C.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

Haus, H.

Hollberg, L.

Holzwarth, R.

Huber, R.

Ippen, E.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kälberer, T.

Kartner, F. X.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kartner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, Nature 452, 610 (2008).
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Kikuchi, K.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
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Koke, S.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krauss, G.

Lacroix, P.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Li, C.-H.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kartner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, Nature 452, 610 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liehl, A.

Llopis, O.

Merrer, P.-H.

Miloševic, D. B.

A. de Bohan, P. Antoine, D. B. Milošević, and B. Piraux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nakayama, A.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[Crossref]

Nelson, L.

Newbury, N.

Nisoli, M.

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
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Oates, C. W.

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[Crossref]

Phillips, D. F.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kartner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, Nature 452, 610 (2008).
[Crossref]

Piraux, B.

A. de Bohan, P. Antoine, D. B. Milošević, and B. Piraux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837 (1998).
[Crossref]

Priori, E.

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
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Ramond, T.

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref]

Riek, C.

Saleh, K.

Sasselov, D.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kartner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, Nature 452, 610 (2008).
[Crossref]

Scheu, R.

Schiller, S.

Schilt, S.

Seletskiy, D. V.

Sell, A.

Stagira, S.

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Steinmeyer, G.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sulzer, P.

Swann, W.

Szentgyorgyi, A.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kartner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, Nature 452, 610 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tamura, K.

Tauser, F.

Telle, H. R.

Thomann, P.

Udem, T.

Villoresi, P.

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Walsworth, R. L.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kartner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, Nature 452, 610 (2008).
[Crossref]

Walther, H.

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Washburn, B.

Wilpers, G.

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

Zach, A.

Zimmermann, M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kartner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, Nature 452, 610 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. de Bohan, P. Antoine, D. B. Milošević, and B. Piraux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837 (1998).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup. The laser system is based on a repetition rate stabilized mode-locked Er:fiber oscillator (Osc). A super continuum (SC) spanning more than an octave is generated in a highly-nonlinear bulk fiber (HNF) after amplification (Amp) and compression. The difference frequency of the SC spectrum at 850 nm and 1880 nm generates an f ceo -free output at 1550 nm, which is pre-amplified (PAmp) to provide multiple ports to be converted to different wavelengths.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Repetition rate stabilization and outputs: The mode-locked Er:fiber oscillator (Osc) is either locked to a low noise RF reference (1) using the piezos voltage ( U p ), or alternatively to a 1.5 Hz cavity-locked cw diode laser (2) via the pump current ( I p ). The characterization is done by a beat with an independent second 1.5 Hz laser at 1162 nm and by DSH detection of two clean-up cw lasers at 1557 and 852 nm. The DSH characterization setup is shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Characterization setup consists of an optical phase-locked loop (OPPL) of a cw laser to one comb line with a fixed RF offset and fiber DSH of the cw laser with a frequency offset given by the AOM frequency.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phase noise spectra (1) corrected for self-heterodyne response at 852 nm (blue, top) and 1557 nm (red, bottom) as well as the beat at 1162 nm (green, middle). The beta separation line (dashed dotted, A) is shown for reference. The inset shows the square root of the integrated phase noise from 1 to 100 kHz.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Phase noise spectra scaled to f rep = 80    MHz carrier according to Eq. (6): The phase noise spectra are shown in two groups: 1. for the comb locked to an 800 MHz RF-reference with zoom (inset), and 2. for the lock to the optical oscillator. The noise of the RF reference oscillator (black, D), the in-loop error of the 1557 nm optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) (black, B) and the out-of-loop beat between the cavity locked lasers (gray, C) are shown for reference.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Phase noise spectra (1) of comb teeth at 1557 nm (red, top) and 1162 nm (green, bottom) for locking to an optical reference laser scaled to 80 MHz. The in-loop error of the 1557 nm OPLL (black, B) and the out-of-loop beat between the cavity locked lasers (gray, C) as well as the beta separation lines (dashed dotted, A) are shown for reference.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ν n = n × f rep + f ceo
ν n ν m ν n ¯ = ( n m ) n ¯ × f rep + ( f ceo f ceo ) 0 ,
ν n ¯ = n ¯ × f rep ,
n fix = ( d f ceo / d N ) / ( d f rep / d N ) .
S ϕ laser ( f ) = S ϕ RF ( f ) · [ 4 sin 2 ( π · f · τ ) ] 1 ,
S ϕ ( f ) = S ϕ ( f ) [ ν 0 ν 0 ] 2 .

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