Abstract

High-harmonic generation (HHG) provides a laboratory-scale source of coherent radiation ideally suited to lensless coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) in the EUV and x-ray spectral region. Here we demonstrate transmission extreme ultraviolet (EUV) ptychography, a scanning variant of CDI, using radiation at a wavelength around 29 nm from an HHG source. Image resolution is diffraction-limited at 54 nm and fields of view up to 100  μm are demonstrated. These results demonstrate the potential for wide-field, high-resolution, laboratory-scale EUV imaging using HHG-based sources with potential application in biological imaging or EUV lithography pellicle inspection.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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Corrections

Peter D. Baksh, Michal Odstrčil, Hyun-Su Kim, Stuart A. Boden, Jeremy G. Frey, and William S. Brocklesby, "Wide-field broadband extreme ultraviolet transmission ptychography using a high-harmonic source: publisher’s note," Opt. Lett. 41, 3057-3057 (2016)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-41-13-3057

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References

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2015 (3)

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, Science 348, 530 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, Ultramicroscopy 158, 98 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Odstrcil, J. Bussmann, D. Rudolf, R. Bresenitz, J. Miao, W. Brocklesby, and L. Juschkin, Opt. Lett. 40, 5574 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, Ultramicroscopy 138, 13 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

T. Edo, D. Batey, A. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. Pešić, T. Waigh, and J. Rodenburg, Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, K. Giewekemeyer, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, Ultramicroscopy 126, 44 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, Opt. Express 21, 13592 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Marchesini, A. Schirotzek, C. Yang, H. Tieng Wu, and F. Maia, Inverse Probl. 29, 115009 (2013), http://stacks.iop.org/0266-5611/29/i=11/a=115009 .
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, E. L. Townsend, D. A. Raymondson, W. F. Schlotter, Y. Liu, C. S. Menoni, L. Rong, C.-C. Chen, J. Miao, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Opt. Express 19, 22470 (2011), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-23-22470 .
[Crossref]

J. N. Clark and A. G. Peele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 154103 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, Nat. Photonics 5, 420 (2011).

2009 (1)

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15343 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. van Heel and M. Schatz, J. Struct. Biol. 151, 250 (2005).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

Abbey, B.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, Nat. Photonics 5, 420 (2011).

Adams, D. E.

Balaur, E.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, Nat. Photonics 5, 420 (2011).

Batey, D.

T. Edo, D. Batey, A. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. Pešić, T. Waigh, and J. Rodenburg, Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Batey, D. J.

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, Ultramicroscopy 138, 13 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bean, R.

Beckers, M.

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, K. Giewekemeyer, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, Ultramicroscopy 126, 44 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beetz, T.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15343 (2005).
[Crossref]

Berenguer, F.

Bresenitz, R.

Brocklesby, W.

Bussmann, J.

Cadenazzi, G. A.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, Nat. Photonics 5, 420 (2011).

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

Chen, C.-C.

Clark, J. N.

J. N. Clark and A. G. Peele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 154103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Claus, D.

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, Ultramicroscopy 138, 13 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dao, L. V.

de Jonge, M.

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dhal, B.

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Diaz, A.

Dilanian, R. A.

Edo, T.

T. Edo, D. Batey, A. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. Pešić, T. Waigh, and J. Rodenburg, Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Elser, V.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15343 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault and V. Elser, Condensed Matter Physics (Elsevier, 2010), Vol. 1.

Fienup, J. R.

Gardner, D. F.

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, Ultramicroscopy 158, 98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Giewekemeyer, K.

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, K. Giewekemeyer, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, Ultramicroscopy 126, 44 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1960).

Gorniak, T.

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, K. Giewekemeyer, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, Ultramicroscopy 126, 44 (2013).
[Crossref]

Henderson, C. A.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, Nat. Photonics 5, 420 (2011).

Howells, M.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15343 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, T.

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, Science 348, 530 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jacobsen, C.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15343 (2005).
[Crossref]

Juschkin, L.

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kirz, J.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15343 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lima, E.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15343 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Maia, F.

S. Marchesini, A. Schirotzek, C. Yang, H. Tieng Wu, and F. Maia, Inverse Probl. 29, 115009 (2013), http://stacks.iop.org/0266-5611/29/i=11/a=115009 .
[Crossref]

Maiden, A.

T. Edo, D. Batey, A. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. Pešić, T. Waigh, and J. Rodenburg, Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maiden, A. M.

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256 (2009).
[Crossref]

Marchesini, S.

S. Marchesini, A. Schirotzek, C. Yang, H. Tieng Wu, and F. Maia, Inverse Probl. 29, 115009 (2013), http://stacks.iop.org/0266-5611/29/i=11/a=115009 .
[Crossref]

McNulty, I.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, Nat. Photonics 5, 420 (2011).

Menoni, C. S.

Menzel, A.

Miao, H.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15343 (2005).
[Crossref]

Miao, J.

Murnane, M. M.

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, Science 348, 530 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, Ultramicroscopy 158, 98 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, E. L. Townsend, D. A. Raymondson, W. F. Schlotter, Y. Liu, C. S. Menoni, L. Rong, C.-C. Chen, J. Miao, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, Opt. Express 19, 22470 (2011), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-23-22470 .
[Crossref]

Neiman, A. M.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15343 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nugent, K.

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nugent, K. A.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, Nat. Photonics 5, 420 (2011).

R. A. Dilanian, B. Chen, S. Teichmann, L. V. Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, Opt. Lett. 33, 2341 (2008).
[Crossref]

Odstrcil, M.

Paterson, D.

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Peele, A.

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Peele, A. G.

J. N. Clark and A. G. Peele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 154103 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, Nat. Photonics 5, 420 (2011).

Pešic, Z.

T. Edo, D. Batey, A. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. Pešić, T. Waigh, and J. Rodenburg, Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peterson, I.

Putkunz, C. T.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, Nat. Photonics 5, 420 (2011).

Quiney, H.

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Quiney, H. M.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, Nat. Photonics 5, 420 (2011).

R. A. Dilanian, B. Chen, S. Teichmann, L. V. Dao, H. M. Quiney, and K. A. Nugent, Opt. Lett. 33, 2341 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rau, C.

T. Edo, D. Batey, A. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. Pešić, T. Waigh, and J. Rodenburg, Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Raymondson, D. A.

Robinson, I. K.

Rodenburg, J.

T. Edo, D. Batey, A. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. Pešić, T. Waigh, and J. Rodenburg, Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Rodenburg, Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 150, 87 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rodenburg, J. M.

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, Ultramicroscopy 138, 13 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, Opt. Express 21, 13592 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rong, L.

Rosenhahn, A.

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, K. Giewekemeyer, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, Ultramicroscopy 126, 44 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rudolf, D.

Salditt, T.

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, K. Giewekemeyer, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, Ultramicroscopy 126, 44 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sayre, D.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15343 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schatz, M.

M. van Heel and M. Schatz, J. Struct. Biol. 151, 250 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schirotzek, A.

S. Marchesini, A. Schirotzek, C. Yang, H. Tieng Wu, and F. Maia, Inverse Probl. 29, 115009 (2013), http://stacks.iop.org/0266-5611/29/i=11/a=115009 .
[Crossref]

Schlotter, W. F.

Seaberg, M. D.

Senkbeil, T.

M. Beckers, T. Senkbeil, T. Gorniak, K. Giewekemeyer, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, Ultramicroscopy 126, 44 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shanblatt, E. R.

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, Ultramicroscopy 158, 98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, D.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15343 (2005).
[Crossref]

Teichmann, S.

Thibault, P.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15343 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault and V. Elser, Condensed Matter Physics (Elsevier, 2010), Vol. 1.

Tieng Wu, H.

S. Marchesini, A. Schirotzek, C. Yang, H. Tieng Wu, and F. Maia, Inverse Probl. 29, 115009 (2013), http://stacks.iop.org/0266-5611/29/i=11/a=115009 .
[Crossref]

Townsend, E. L.

Tran, C.

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref]

van Heel, M.

M. van Heel and M. Schatz, J. Struct. Biol. 151, 250 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vila-Comamala, J.

Vine, D. J.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, Nat. Photonics 5, 420 (2011).

Wagner, U.

T. Edo, D. Batey, A. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. Pešić, T. Waigh, and J. Rodenburg, Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Waigh, T.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the experimental design. After the amplifier, the IR laser is reflected off a first stabilization mirror (M) before passing through a stabilized focusing lens (L). The main beam is then reflected into the gas cell while a small fraction of the beam passes through the back of the dielectric mirror, toward two stabilization CMOS cameras (C1 and C2). The beam path between amplifier and gas cell is approximately 6 m. The main beam passes through the gas cell (G) where the EUV is generated, and is attenuated by an aluminum filter (F), which transmits the EUV beam. A multilayer spherical mirror (XM) is used to focus the EUV onto the aperture (P) and sample (S). The diffraction pattern is measured in the far field by a cooled CCD (XC).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Line profile of the far-field diffraction pattern of a double slit placed at the CLC position. The profile is compared to that from a simulated monochromatic spectrum to demonstrate the blurring effect caused by the polychromatic source illumination. The right plot shows the reconstructed EUV spectrum derived from the double-slit diffraction pattern [14].
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Amplitude and phase image of the grid sample. Here, the image hue represents relative phase and image intensity shows the amplitude of the reconstructed complex transmission function. The inset of (a) shows the complex reconstructed probe field on the same scale as the sample (b), which shows an SEM image of the sample. (c) and (d) show the complex electric field distribution of the probe incident on the sample and after back-propagation to the plane of the pinhole aperture. (e) is an example of a single collected scatter pattern.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Zoomed region of the reconstruction shown in Fig. 3 and one example of intensity values around a sharp edge and an error function fit to a numerically refocused sharp edge profile. White line indicates the region of the reconstruction where the shown line profile was obtained. Stars represent reconstructed data points and circles denote data points after numerical refocusing of the image. (b) Fourier ring correlation with 1-bit resolution criterion.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Image reconstruction in phase and amplitude of an extended sample of PMMA spheres placed on 50 nm thick Si3N4 support. Pixel size is 54 nm and the field of view is 105 μm. The illumination probe is presented on the same scale as the reconstructed image.

Equations (2)

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I(k)=iNWi(k)Ii(k)iWi(k)titN,
DOF=±12λ(NA)2,

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