Abstract

We demonstrate the effectiveness of stimulated Brillouin scattering for background-free Brillouin spectroscopy in scattering media within the biological spectral window. Using two nearly counter-propagating continuous-wave diode laser beams at 780 nm, we acquired transmission stimulated Brillouin point spectra in 10 mm and 500 μm thick Intralipid tissue phantoms with 100  μm and 16  μm diameter focal points, respectively. Stimulated gain spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio (8.7–30.7 dB) and frequency accuracy (6–72 MHz) were obtained at 20  MHz/10  ms and 20  MHz/100  ms through 0.24–3.36 mean-free paths of tissue phantoms. Our results suggest that stimulated Brillouin gain can be useful for imaging of Brillouin resonances in submillimeter-thick scattering samples.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (4)

Z. Meng and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 9303, 930342 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Antonacci, R. M. Pedrigi, A. Kondiboyina, V. V. Mehta, R. D. Silva, C. Paterson, R. Krams, and P. Török, J. R. Soc. Interface 12, 20150843 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Antonacci, G. Lepert, C. Paterson, and P. Török, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 061102 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Ballmann, J. V. Thompson, A. J. Traverso, Z. Meng, M. O. Scully, and V. V. Yakovlev, Sci. Rep. 5, 18139 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

K. J. Koski, P. Akhenblit, K. McKiernan, and J. L. Yarger, Nat. Mater. 12, 262 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2005 (2)

P. Benassi, R. Eramo, A. Giugni, M. Nardone, and M. Sampoli, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. J. Koski and J. L. Yarger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061903 (2005).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, and B. J. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 71, 2158 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

W. T. Grubbs and R. A. MacPhail, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 34 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1990 (2)

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[Crossref]

E. Di Fabrizio, V. Mazzacurati, M. Nardone, A. Nucara, G. Ruocco, and G. Signorelli, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 7751 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

C. Y. She, H. Moosmüller, and G. C. Herring, Appl. Phys. B 46, 283 (1988).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

J. R. Sandercock, RCA Rev. 36, 89 (1975).

1968 (1)

M. Denariez and G. Bret, Phys. Rev. 171, 160 (1968).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

Akhenblit, P.

K. J. Koski, P. Akhenblit, K. McKiernan, and J. L. Yarger, Nat. Mater. 12, 262 (2013).
[Crossref]

Antonacci, G.

G. Antonacci, R. M. Pedrigi, A. Kondiboyina, V. V. Mehta, R. D. Silva, C. Paterson, R. Krams, and P. Török, J. R. Soc. Interface 12, 20150843 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Antonacci, G. Lepert, C. Paterson, and P. Török, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 061102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ballmann, C. W.

C. W. Ballmann, J. V. Thompson, A. J. Traverso, Z. Meng, M. O. Scully, and V. V. Yakovlev, Sci. Rep. 5, 18139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Benassi, P.

P. Benassi, R. Eramo, A. Giugni, M. Nardone, and M. Sampoli, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Berns, M. W.

Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, and B. J. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 71, 2158 (1996).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 1992).

Bret, G.

M. Denariez and G. Bret, Phys. Rev. 171, 160 (1968).
[Crossref]

Cheong, W.-F.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[Crossref]

Damzen, M.

M. Damzen, Stimulated Brillouin Scattering: Fundamentals and Applications (IOP, 2003).

Denariez, M.

M. Denariez and G. Bret, Phys. Rev. 171, 160 (1968).
[Crossref]

Di Fabrizio, E.

E. Di Fabrizio, V. Mazzacurati, M. Nardone, A. Nucara, G. Ruocco, and G. Signorelli, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 7751 (1990).
[Crossref]

Eramo, R.

P. Benassi, R. Eramo, A. Giugni, M. Nardone, and M. Sampoli, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Faris, G. W.

Giugni, A.

P. Benassi, R. Eramo, A. Giugni, M. Nardone, and M. Sampoli, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Grubbs, W. T.

W. T. Grubbs and R. A. MacPhail, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 34 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hell, S. W.

Herring, G. C.

C. Y. She, H. Moosmüller, and G. C. Herring, Appl. Phys. B 46, 283 (1988).
[Crossref]

Hickman, A. P.

Jusinski, L. E.

Kondiboyina, A.

G. Antonacci, R. M. Pedrigi, A. Kondiboyina, V. V. Mehta, R. D. Silva, C. Paterson, R. Krams, and P. Török, J. R. Soc. Interface 12, 20150843 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koski, K. J.

K. J. Koski, P. Akhenblit, K. McKiernan, and J. L. Yarger, Nat. Mater. 12, 262 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Koski and J. L. Yarger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krams, R.

G. Antonacci, R. M. Pedrigi, A. Kondiboyina, V. V. Mehta, R. D. Silva, C. Paterson, R. Krams, and P. Török, J. R. Soc. Interface 12, 20150843 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lepert, G.

G. Antonacci, G. Lepert, C. Paterson, and P. Török, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 061102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, and B. J. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 71, 2158 (1996).
[Crossref]

MacPhail, R. A.

W. T. Grubbs and R. A. MacPhail, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 34 (1994).
[Crossref]

Mazzacurati, V.

E. Di Fabrizio, V. Mazzacurati, M. Nardone, A. Nucara, G. Ruocco, and G. Signorelli, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 7751 (1990).
[Crossref]

McKiernan, K.

K. J. Koski, P. Akhenblit, K. McKiernan, and J. L. Yarger, Nat. Mater. 12, 262 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mehta, V. V.

G. Antonacci, R. M. Pedrigi, A. Kondiboyina, V. V. Mehta, R. D. Silva, C. Paterson, R. Krams, and P. Török, J. R. Soc. Interface 12, 20150843 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meng, Z.

Z. Meng and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 9303, 930342 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Ballmann, J. V. Thompson, A. J. Traverso, Z. Meng, M. O. Scully, and V. V. Yakovlev, Sci. Rep. 5, 18139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Meng, A. J. Traverso, and V. V. Yakovlev, Opt. Express 22, 5410 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moosmüller, H.

C. Y. She, H. Moosmüller, and G. C. Herring, Appl. Phys. B 46, 283 (1988).
[Crossref]

Nardone, M.

P. Benassi, R. Eramo, A. Giugni, M. Nardone, and M. Sampoli, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Di Fabrizio, V. Mazzacurati, M. Nardone, A. Nucara, G. Ruocco, and G. Signorelli, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 7751 (1990).
[Crossref]

Nucara, A.

E. Di Fabrizio, V. Mazzacurati, M. Nardone, A. Nucara, G. Ruocco, and G. Signorelli, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 7751 (1990).
[Crossref]

Paterson, C.

G. Antonacci, R. M. Pedrigi, A. Kondiboyina, V. V. Mehta, R. D. Silva, C. Paterson, R. Krams, and P. Török, J. R. Soc. Interface 12, 20150843 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Antonacci, G. Lepert, C. Paterson, and P. Török, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 061102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pedrigi, R. M.

G. Antonacci, R. M. Pedrigi, A. Kondiboyina, V. V. Mehta, R. D. Silva, C. Paterson, R. Krams, and P. Török, J. R. Soc. Interface 12, 20150843 (2015).
[Crossref]

Prahl, S. A.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[Crossref]

Ruocco, G.

E. Di Fabrizio, V. Mazzacurati, M. Nardone, A. Nucara, G. Ruocco, and G. Signorelli, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 7751 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sampoli, M.

P. Benassi, R. Eramo, A. Giugni, M. Nardone, and M. Sampoli, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sandercock, J. R.

J. R. Sandercock, RCA Rev. 36, 89 (1975).

Scarcelli, G.

Schonle, A.

Scully, M. O.

C. W. Ballmann, J. V. Thompson, A. J. Traverso, Z. Meng, M. O. Scully, and V. V. Yakovlev, Sci. Rep. 5, 18139 (2015).
[Crossref]

She, C. Y.

C. Y. She, H. Moosmüller, and G. C. Herring, Appl. Phys. B 46, 283 (1988).
[Crossref]

Signorelli, G.

E. Di Fabrizio, V. Mazzacurati, M. Nardone, A. Nucara, G. Ruocco, and G. Signorelli, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 7751 (1990).
[Crossref]

Silva, R. D.

G. Antonacci, R. M. Pedrigi, A. Kondiboyina, V. V. Mehta, R. D. Silva, C. Paterson, R. Krams, and P. Török, J. R. Soc. Interface 12, 20150843 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sonek, G. J.

Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, and B. J. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 71, 2158 (1996).
[Crossref]

Thompson, J. V.

C. W. Ballmann, J. V. Thompson, A. J. Traverso, Z. Meng, M. O. Scully, and V. V. Yakovlev, Sci. Rep. 5, 18139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Török, P.

G. Antonacci, R. M. Pedrigi, A. Kondiboyina, V. V. Mehta, R. D. Silva, C. Paterson, R. Krams, and P. Török, J. R. Soc. Interface 12, 20150843 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Antonacci, G. Lepert, C. Paterson, and P. Török, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 061102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Traverso, A. J.

C. W. Ballmann, J. V. Thompson, A. J. Traverso, Z. Meng, M. O. Scully, and V. V. Yakovlev, Sci. Rep. 5, 18139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Meng, A. J. Traverso, and V. V. Yakovlev, Opt. Express 22, 5410 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tromberg, B. J.

Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, and B. J. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 71, 2158 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. V.

L. V. Wang and H. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2007).

Welch, A. J.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

L. V. Wang and H. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2007).

Yakovlev, V. V.

C. W. Ballmann, J. V. Thompson, A. J. Traverso, Z. Meng, M. O. Scully, and V. V. Yakovlev, Sci. Rep. 5, 18139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Meng and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 9303, 930342 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Meng, A. J. Traverso, and V. V. Yakovlev, Opt. Express 22, 5410 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yarger, J. L.

K. J. Koski, P. Akhenblit, K. McKiernan, and J. L. Yarger, Nat. Mater. 12, 262 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Koski and J. L. Yarger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yun, S. H.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Y. She, H. Moosmüller, and G. C. Herring, Appl. Phys. B 46, 283 (1988).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. J. Koski and J. L. Yarger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061903 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Antonacci, G. Lepert, C. Paterson, and P. Török, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 061102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Biophys. J. (1)

Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, and B. J. Tromberg, Biophys. J. 71, 2158 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

E. Di Fabrizio, V. Mazzacurati, M. Nardone, A. Nucara, G. Ruocco, and G. Signorelli, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 7751 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. R. Soc. Interface (1)

G. Antonacci, R. M. Pedrigi, A. Kondiboyina, V. V. Mehta, R. D. Silva, C. Paterson, R. Krams, and P. Török, J. R. Soc. Interface 12, 20150843 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. J. Koski, P. Akhenblit, K. McKiernan, and J. L. Yarger, Nat. Mater. 12, 262 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

M. Denariez and G. Bret, Phys. Rev. 171, 160 (1968).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Z. Meng and V. V. Yakovlev, Proc. SPIE 9303, 930342 (2015).
[Crossref]

RCA Rev. (1)

J. R. Sandercock, RCA Rev. 36, 89 (1975).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

W. T. Grubbs and R. A. MacPhail, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 34 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. Benassi, R. Eramo, A. Giugni, M. Nardone, and M. Sampoli, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C. W. Ballmann, J. V. Thompson, A. J. Traverso, Z. Meng, M. O. Scully, and V. V. Yakovlev, Sci. Rep. 5, 18139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

L. V. Wang and H. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2007).

M. Damzen, Stimulated Brillouin Scattering: Fundamentals and Applications (IOP, 2003).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 1992).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmission-mode SBS spectroscopy at 780 nm. (a) Experimental setup. C 1 / C 2 , fiber collimators; L 1 / L 2 , focusing lenses; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; L 3 L 4 / L 5 L 6 , relay lenses; MO, microscope objective; PD, large-area photodiode; FS, fiber splitter; FPD, fast photodetector; LIA, lock-in amplifier; FC, frequency counter, OSC, oscilloscope. (b) Spectrum diagram at PD output. RIN, relative intensity noise; dark red pump modulation power at f m 1 ; light red probe modulation power at f m 2 ; blue-red gradient, SBG/SBL modulation power at f m 2 f m 1 , which comprises the SBG/SBL signals in this Letter; red-blue gradient, SBG/SBL modulation power at f m 2 + f m 1 .

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission SBS spectra of (a) nonscattering liquids and (b) water and scattering Intralipid solutions. The cuvette photos show increased light attenuation with increasing Intralipid concentration in the solution (red, 0%; lightest gray, 0.019%; black, 0.103%). Note that a pump power of 95 mW was used on the methanol samples.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measurements of (a) SBG signal’s SNR and (b) precision of the Brillouin shift estimates in scattering Intralipid solutions in a L = 10 -mm-thick glass chamber at τ LIA = 10    ms (blue) and τ LIA = 100    ms (red).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurements of (a) SBG signal’s SNR and (b) precision of the Brillouin shift estimates in scattering Intralipid solutions in a L = 500  -  μm -thick glass chamber at τ LIA = 10    ms (blue) and τ LIA = 100    ms (red).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ω B = ( 2 ω 1 n v s / c ) sin ( θ / 2 ) .
G ( Ω ) = Δ P 2 ( Ω ) / P 2 L = ± η g ( Ω ) L eff P 1 0 / A ,
SNR = ( R Δ P 2 peak e μ t L ) 2 N E B + 2 q R P 2 L e μ t L B + RIN ( R P 2 L e μ t L ) 2 B .

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