Abstract

We proposed a single-shot spatial angular compounded optical coherence tomography angiography (AC-Angio-OCT) for blood flow contrast enhancement. By encoding incident angles in B-scan modulation frequencies and splitting the modulation spectrum in the spatial frequency domain, angle-resolved independent subangiograms were obtained and compounded to improve the flow contrast. A full space of the spatial frequency domain allows a wide modulation spectrum. To get access to the full space of the spatial frequency domain and avoid the complex-conjugate ambiguity of the modulation spectrum, a complex-valued OCT spectral interferogram was retrieved by removing one of the conjugate terms in the depth space. To validate the proposed concept, both flow phantom and live animal experiments were performed. The proposed AC-Angio-OCT offers a 50% decrease of misclassification errors, and an improved flow contrast and vessel connectivity, which contributes to the interpretation of OCT angiograms.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

L. Guo, P. Li, C. Pan, R. Liao, Y. Cheng, W. Hu, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Opt. 18, 025301 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, Retina 35, 2161 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 100901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, L. Guo, C. Pan, T. Lu, T. Hong, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 116004 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 50901 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2009 (1)

H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030512 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

2004 (1)

T. Storen, A. Royset, N. H. Giskeodegard, H. M. Pedersen, and T. Lindmo, Proc. SPIE 5316, 196 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[Crossref]

An, L.

Baumann, B.

Cadotte, D. W.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 50901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. L.

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 100901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

L. Guo, P. Li, C. Pan, R. Liao, Y. Cheng, W. Hu, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Opt. 18, 025301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

L. Guo, P. Li, C. Pan, R. Liao, Y. Cheng, W. Hu, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Opt. 18, 025301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, L. Guo, C. Pan, T. Lu, T. Hong, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 116004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ding, Z.

L. Guo, P. Li, C. Pan, R. Liao, Y. Cheng, W. Hu, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Opt. 18, 025301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, L. Guo, C. Pan, T. Lu, T. Hong, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 116004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fercher, A. F.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Giskeodegard, N. H.

T. Storen, A. Royset, N. H. Giskeodegard, H. M. Pedersen, and T. Lindmo, Proc. SPIE 5316, 196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gotzinger, E.

B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, Opt. Express 15, 13375 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[Crossref]

Guo, L.

L. Guo, P. Li, C. Pan, R. Liao, Y. Cheng, W. Hu, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Opt. 18, 025301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, L. Guo, C. Pan, T. Lu, T. Hong, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 116004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, Opt. Express 15, 13375 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hong, T.

Y. Cheng, L. Guo, C. Pan, T. Lu, T. Hong, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 116004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hornegger, J.

Hu, W.

L. Guo, P. Li, C. Pan, R. Liao, Y. Cheng, W. Hu, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Opt. 18, 025301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

Jia, Y.

Kraus, M. F.

Lasser, T.

Leitgeb, R.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[Crossref]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, P.

L. Guo, P. Li, C. Pan, R. Liao, Y. Cheng, W. Hu, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Opt. 18, 025301 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, P. Li, C. Pan, R. Liao, Y. Cheng, W. Hu, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Opt. 18, 025301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, L. Guo, C. Pan, T. Lu, T. Hong, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 116004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liao, R.

L. Guo, P. Li, C. Pan, R. Liao, Y. Cheng, W. Hu, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Opt. 18, 025301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lindmo, T.

T. Storen, A. Royset, N. H. Giskeodegard, H. M. Pedersen, and T. Lindmo, Proc. SPIE 5316, 196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. J.

Lu, T.

Y. Cheng, L. Guo, C. Pan, T. Lu, T. Hong, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 116004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Luk, T. W.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 50901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mahmud, M. S.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 50901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mariampillai, A.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 50901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Michaely, R.

Pan, C.

L. Guo, P. Li, C. Pan, R. Liao, Y. Cheng, W. Hu, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Opt. 18, 025301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, L. Guo, C. Pan, T. Lu, T. Hong, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 116004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pedersen, H. M.

T. Storen, A. Royset, N. H. Giskeodegard, H. M. Pedersen, and T. Lindmo, Proc. SPIE 5316, 196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pircher, M.

B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, Opt. Express 15, 13375 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[Crossref]

Potsaid, B.

Rollins, A. M.

H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030512 (2009).
[Crossref]

Royset, A.

T. Storen, A. Royset, N. H. Giskeodegard, H. M. Pedersen, and T. Lindmo, Proc. SPIE 5316, 196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sekhar, S. C.

Spaide, R. F.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, Retina 35, 2161 (2015).
[Crossref]

Storen, T.

T. Storen, A. Royset, N. H. Giskeodegard, H. M. Pedersen, and T. Lindmo, Proc. SPIE 5316, 196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Subhash, H.

Sun, C.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 50901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tan, O.

Tokayer, J.

Vuong, B.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 50901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Waheed, N. K.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, Retina 35, 2161 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030512 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, R. K.

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 100901 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. An and R. K. Wang, Opt. Lett. 32, 3423 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Yang, V. X.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 50901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, A.

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 100901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 100901 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 50901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, L. Guo, C. Pan, T. Lu, T. Hong, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 116004 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030512 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 100901 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

L. Guo, P. Li, C. Pan, R. Liao, Y. Cheng, W. Hu, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, and P. Li, J. Opt. 18, 025301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Storen, A. Royset, N. H. Giskeodegard, H. M. Pedersen, and T. Lindmo, Proc. SPIE 5316, 196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Retina (1)

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, Retina 35, 2161 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of a typical sample arm in an OCT system. (b) B-scan modulation frequency f m induced by off-pivot offset ( δ ). (c) Overlap between the negative and positive B-scan modulation frequencies.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Flow chart of AC-Angio-OCT method. (a)–(c) Complex-valued spectrum S ˜ ( k , x ) is reconstructed by removing one of the two conjugate terms in the depth space; (d),(e) B-scan modulation spectrum is split into halves using a Gaussian filter bank in the spatial frequency domain; (f)–(h) angle-resolved independent subangiograms are generated and compounded for a new angiogram.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Representative cross-sectional phantom angiograms in (a) conventional and (b) AC-Angio-OCT. The insert is an enlarged view of the rectangular area. Histograms and their fitting curves of angle-resolved (c) subangiogram 1, (d) subangiogram 2, (e) conventional, and (f) AC-Angio-OCT signals. The curves in (f) are obtained from two subangiograms [(c) and (d)] using the model of Eq. (3). The yellow asterisks and pluses, respectively, indicate the selected points from the dynamic fluid and static gel that are used for statistics. All the R -squared ( R 2 ) statistics are higher than 0.95. The classification error rates (CERs) of the conventional and AC-Angio-OCT are 0.24 and 0.11, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. 3D angiograms of the conventional and AC-Angio-OCT in mouse cortex in vivo. (a) The 3D rendering of vasculature. The middle row shows the en face slices at a superficial depth, and the last row presents the slices at a deeper depth ( 100    μm ). The yellow arrows indicate the enhanced flow contrast.

Equations (3)

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f m = 2 k δ π ω ,
AngioOCT = | A ( z , x , n + 1 ) A ( z , x , n ) | .
f AngioOCT ¯ = f AngioOCT 1 * f AngioOCT 2 ,

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