Abstract

We report in this Letter a two-phase structured laser illumination planar imaging [two-pulse SLIPI (2p-SLIPI)] optical setup where the “lines structure” is spatially shifted by exploiting the birefringence property of a calcite crystal. By using this optical component and two cross-polarized laser pulses, the shift of the modulated pattern is not “time-limited” anymore. Consequently, two sub-images with spatially mismatched phases can be recorded within a few hundred of nanoseconds only, freezing the motion of the illuminated transient flow. In comparison with previous setups for instantaneous imaging based on structured illumination, the current optical design presents the advantage of having a single optical path, greatly simplifying its complexity. Due to its virtue of suppressing the effects from multiple light scattering, the 2p-SLIPI technique is applied here in an optically dense multi-jet direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) ethanol spray. The fast formation of polydispersed droplets and appearance of voids after fuel injection are investigated by simultaneous detection of Mie scattering and liquid laser-induced fluorescence. The results allow for significantly improved analysis of the spray structure.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Fansler and S. Parrish, Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 012002 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Linne, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 39, 403 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Cavaliere, R. Ragucci, A. D’alessio, and C. Noviello, Proc. Comb. Inst. 22, 1973 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, Opt. Express 16, 17870 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, M. Richter, S. G. Pettersson, and M. Aldén, Opt. Lett. 33, 2752 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, and M. Aldén, Opt. Lett. 39, 2584 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. E. Berrocal, J. Johnsson, E. Kristensson, and M. Aldén, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 7, 12015 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. N. Mishra, E. Kristensson, and E. Berrocal, Opt. Express 22, 4480 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. N. Mishra, F. Abou Nada, S. Polster, E. Kristensson, and E. Berrocal, Opt. Express 24, 4949 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, R. Wellander, M. Ritcher, M. Aldén, and M. Linne, Proc. Comb. Inst. 33, 855 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, Atomization Sprays 20, 337 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. Ghosh, Opt. Commun. 163, 95 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. Frackowiak and C. Tropea, Appl. Opt. 49, 2363 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Charalampous and Y. Hardalupas, Appl. Opt. 50, 1197 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Heldmann, “Geschwindigkeits- und Impulsverteilung in Freistrahl- und Doppelstrahl-Sprays für die Benzindirekteinspritzung,” Dr.-Ing. thesis (University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 2015).
  16. C. Baumgarten, Mixture Formation in Internal Combustion Engines (Springer, 2006).

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

T. Fansler and S. Parrish, Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 012002 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

M. Linne, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 39, 403 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

E. Berrocal, J. Johnsson, E. Kristensson, and M. Aldén, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 7, 12015 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

G. Charalampous and Y. Hardalupas, Appl. Opt. 50, 1197 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, R. Wellander, M. Ritcher, M. Aldén, and M. Linne, Proc. Comb. Inst. 33, 855 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, Atomization Sprays 20, 337 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Frackowiak and C. Tropea, Appl. Opt. 49, 2363 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

1999 (1)

G. Ghosh, Opt. Commun. 163, 95 (1999).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

A. Cavaliere, R. Ragucci, A. D’alessio, and C. Noviello, Proc. Comb. Inst. 22, 1973 (1988).
[Crossref]

Abou Nada, F.

Aldén, M.

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, and M. Aldén, Opt. Lett. 39, 2584 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, J. Johnsson, E. Kristensson, and M. Aldén, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 7, 12015 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, R. Wellander, M. Ritcher, M. Aldén, and M. Linne, Proc. Comb. Inst. 33, 855 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, Atomization Sprays 20, 337 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, M. Richter, S. G. Pettersson, and M. Aldén, Opt. Lett. 33, 2752 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, Opt. Express 16, 17870 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baumgarten, C.

C. Baumgarten, Mixture Formation in Internal Combustion Engines (Springer, 2006).

Berrocal, E.

Cavaliere, A.

A. Cavaliere, R. Ragucci, A. D’alessio, and C. Noviello, Proc. Comb. Inst. 22, 1973 (1988).
[Crossref]

Charalampous, G.

D’alessio, A.

A. Cavaliere, R. Ragucci, A. D’alessio, and C. Noviello, Proc. Comb. Inst. 22, 1973 (1988).
[Crossref]

Fansler, T.

T. Fansler and S. Parrish, Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 012002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Frackowiak, B.

Ghosh, G.

G. Ghosh, Opt. Commun. 163, 95 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hardalupas, Y.

Heldmann, M.

M. Heldmann, “Geschwindigkeits- und Impulsverteilung in Freistrahl- und Doppelstrahl-Sprays für die Benzindirekteinspritzung,” Dr.-Ing. thesis (University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 2015).

Johnsson, J.

E. Berrocal, J. Johnsson, E. Kristensson, and M. Aldén, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 7, 12015 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kristensson, E.

Linne, M.

M. Linne, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 39, 403 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, R. Wellander, M. Ritcher, M. Aldén, and M. Linne, Proc. Comb. Inst. 33, 855 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, Opt. Express 16, 17870 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mishra, Y. N.

Noviello, C.

A. Cavaliere, R. Ragucci, A. D’alessio, and C. Noviello, Proc. Comb. Inst. 22, 1973 (1988).
[Crossref]

Parrish, S.

T. Fansler and S. Parrish, Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 012002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pettersson, S. G.

Polster, S.

Ragucci, R.

A. Cavaliere, R. Ragucci, A. D’alessio, and C. Noviello, Proc. Comb. Inst. 22, 1973 (1988).
[Crossref]

Richter, M.

Ritcher, M.

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, R. Wellander, M. Ritcher, M. Aldén, and M. Linne, Proc. Comb. Inst. 33, 855 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tropea, C.

Wellander, R.

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, R. Wellander, M. Ritcher, M. Aldén, and M. Linne, Proc. Comb. Inst. 33, 855 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Atomization Sprays (1)

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, Atomization Sprays 20, 337 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. (1)

E. Berrocal, J. Johnsson, E. Kristensson, and M. Aldén, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 7, 12015 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. Fansler and S. Parrish, Meas. Sci. Technol. 26, 012002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Ghosh, Opt. Commun. 163, 95 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Comb. Inst. (2)

A. Cavaliere, R. Ragucci, A. D’alessio, and C. Noviello, Proc. Comb. Inst. 22, 1973 (1988).
[Crossref]

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, R. Wellander, M. Ritcher, M. Aldén, and M. Linne, Proc. Comb. Inst. 33, 855 (2011).
[Crossref]

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

M. Linne, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 39, 403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M. Heldmann, “Geschwindigkeits- und Impulsverteilung in Freistrahl- und Doppelstrahl-Sprays für die Benzindirekteinspritzung,” Dr.-Ing. thesis (University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 2015).

C. Baumgarten, Mixture Formation in Internal Combustion Engines (Springer, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Top view of the optical arrangement of 2p-SLIPI setup for simultaneous LIF and Mie detection. A spatially modulated light sheet is created by means of a Ronchi grating, while the displacement of the line pattern is operated by employing the birefringence of a calcite crystal, as illustrated in the zoomed area.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of post-processing to extract a 2p-SLIPI image. (a) Sub-image for LIF detection is shown along with its FFT. (b) Intermediate image showing the absolute value of the subtraction ( I 0 I 180 ) and its FFT image are shown. (c) 2p-SLIPI image, along with its FFT, can be seen. A local band-rejection Gaussian filter is used for the removal of the residual lines. Note that any spray information residing within the filter range is also removed.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison between conventional light sheet imaging and 2p-SLIPI for instantaneous (a) LIF, (b) Mie scattering, and (c) LIF/Mie ratio. The transient ethanol spray is imaged at 2500 μs after the visible start of the injection. The 2p-SLIPI approach generates images cleaned up from multiple scattering artifacts.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Four examples of instantaneous 2p-SLIPI images of the LIF/Mie ratio. (b) Standard deviation LIF/Mie ratio determined from 150 2p-SLIPI images. The results highlight the importance of shot-shot variation of the droplet relative SMD.

Equations (1)

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I 2 p SLIPI = F 2 υ ( ( I 0 I 180 ) 2 ) ,

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