Abstract

For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a compact, eye-safe, and versatile direct detection Doppler lidar is developed using an upconversion single-photon detection method at 1.5 μm. An all-fiber and polarization maintaining architecture is realized to guarantee the high optical coupling efficiency and the robust stability. Using integrated-optic components, the conservation of etendue of the optical receiver is achieved by manufacturing a fiber-coupled periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide and an all-fiber Fabry–Perot interferometer (FPI). The double-edge technique is implemented by using a convert single-channel FPI and a single upconversion detector, incorporating a time-division multiplexing method. The backscatter photons at 1548.1 nm are converted into 863 nm via mixing with a pump laser at 1950 nm. The relative error of the system is less than 0.1% over nine weeks. In experiments, atmospheric wind and visibility over 48 h are detected in the boundary layer. The lidar shows good agreement with the ultrasonic wind sensor, with a standard deviation of 1.04 m/s in speed and 12.3° in direction.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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