Abstract

With a simple setup, mainly composed of a low coherence light source and a camera, full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) allows volumetric tissue imaging. However, fringe washout constrains its use in retinal imaging. Here, we present a novel motion-insensitive approach to FF-OCT, which introduces path-length differences between the reference and the sample light in neighboring pixels using an off-axis reference beam. The temporal carrier frequency in scanned time-domain OCT is replaced by a spatial carrier frequency. Volumetric in-vivo FF-OCT measurements of the human retina were acquired in only 1.3 s, comparable to the acquisition times of current clinically used OCT devices.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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M. Mueller, C. Schulz-Wackerbarth, P. Steven, E. Lankenau, T. Bonin, H. Mueller, A. Brueggemann, R. Birngruber, S. Grisanti, and G. Huettmann, Curr. Eye Res. 35, 722 (2010).
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D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. (2016).
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D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. (2016).
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Hillmann, D.

H. Spahr, D. Hillmann, C. Hain, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, Opt. Lett. 40, 4771 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Hillmann, G. Franke, L. Hinkel, T. Bonin, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, Proc. SPIE 8571, 857104 (2013).
[Crossref]

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M. Stehouwer, F. D. Verbraak, H. R. de Vries, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Eye 25, 97 (2011).
[Crossref]

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M. Mueller, C. Schulz-Wackerbarth, P. Steven, E. Lankenau, T. Bonin, H. Mueller, A. Brueggemann, R. Birngruber, S. Grisanti, and G. Huettmann, Curr. Eye Res. 35, 722 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sudkamp, H.

H. Spahr, D. Hillmann, C. Hain, C. Pfäffle, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, and G. Hüttmann, Opt. Lett. 40, 4771 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. (2016).
[Crossref]

Swanson, E. A.

Takeda, M.

Tanno, N.

Upatnieks, J.

Vabre, L.

van Berge, L.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

M. Stehouwer, F. D. Verbraak, H. R. de Vries, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Eye 25, 97 (2011).
[Crossref]

Verbraak, F. D.

M. Stehouwer, F. D. Verbraak, H. R. de Vries, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Eye 25, 97 (2011).
[Crossref]

Winter, C.

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. (2016).
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Witte, S.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

M. Mueller, C. Schulz-Wackerbarth, P. Steven, E. Lankenau, T. Bonin, H. Mueller, A. Brueggemann, R. Birngruber, S. Grisanti, and G. Huettmann, Curr. Eye Res. 35, 722 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eye (1)

M. Stehouwer, F. D. Verbraak, H. R. de Vries, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Eye 25, 97 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Hillmann, G. Franke, L. Hinkel, T. Bonin, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, Proc. SPIE 8571, 857104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

D. Hillmann, H. Spahr, C. Hain, H. Sudkamp, G. Franke, C. Pfäffle, C. Winter, and G. Hüttmann, Sci. Rep. (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Hillmann, Holoscopy (Springer, 2014).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Setup of off-axis full-field time-domain OCT: C 1 is the collimating lens; BS 1 , BS 2 , and BS 3 are beam splitters; L 1 is an achromatic lens; L eye are the refractive elements of the eye; and ND is a neutral density filter. The diaphragm iris is placed in the Fourier plane of both lenses.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Image reconstruction steps: (a) image of a human retina superimposed with the reference light. The inset shows a ( 50 × 50 )-pixel area with an enhanced contrast. Speckling from the sample and fringe pattern caused by interference with the reference wave is clearly visible. (b) Fourier transformed image. Orange (dotted) and green (solid) circles indicate the cross-correlation and autocorrelation terms, respectively. (c) En-face image after inverse Fourier transform of a cross-correlation term in log-scale. (d) 3D rendering of the volume in log-scale.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Retinal images of a healthy eye captured in-vivo. Shown are B-scans of (a) the macula region; (b) the macula region, averaged among 10 lateral frames; (c) the peripheral region, averaged among 10 lateral frames; and (d) a macula with severe motion artifacts (arrow), averaged among 10 lateral frames. The scale bars are 200 μm.

Equations (4)

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I = | R + O | 2 = | R | 2 + | O | 2 + R O * + R * O .
K O = 2 · π · NA λ 0 .
Σ dB = 20 log ( MTF · N e , v oxel ) ,
N e , v oxel = Φ · QE · t exp · T · λ 0 N voxel · c · h .

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