Abstract

Quantum digital signatures (QDSs) apply quantum mechanics to the problem of guaranteeing message integrity and non-repudiation with information-theoretical security, which are complementary to the confidentiality realized by quantum key distribution (QKD). Previous experimental demonstrations have been limited to transmission distances of less than 5 km of optical fiber in a laboratory setting. Here we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of QDSs over installed optical fiber, as well as the longest transmission link reported to date. This demonstration used a 90 km long differential phase shift QKD to achieve approximately one signed bit per second, an increase in the signature generation rate of several orders of magnitude over previous optical fiber demonstrations.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2016 (4)

R. Amiri, P. Wallden, A. Kent, and E. Andersson, Phys. Rev. A 93, 032325 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. J. Donaldson, R. J. Collins, K. Kleczkowska, R. Amiri, P. Wallden, V. Dunjko, J. Jeffers, E. Andersson, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 012329 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. Arrazola, P. Wallden, and E. Andersson, Quantum Inf. Comput. 16, 0435 (2016).

C. Croal, C. Peuntinger, B. Heim, I. Khan, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, P. Wallden, E. Andersson, and N. Korolkova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 100503 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

R. J. Collins, R. J. Donaldson, V. Dunjko, P. Wallden, P. J. Clarke, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 040502 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Korzh, N. Walenta, T. Lunghi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081108 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Shimizu, T. Honjo, M. Fujiwara, T. Ito, K. Tamaki, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, and M. Sasaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 141 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25, 063001 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. J. Clarke, R. J. Collins, V. Dunjko, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Nat. Commun. 3, 1174 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

G. S. Buller and R. J. Collins, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 012002 (2010).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

W. Hoeffding, J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 58, 13 (1963).
[Crossref]

Allacher, A.

Amiri, R.

R. Amiri, P. Wallden, A. Kent, and E. Andersson, Phys. Rev. A 93, 032325 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. J. Donaldson, R. J. Collins, K. Kleczkowska, R. Amiri, P. Wallden, V. Dunjko, J. Jeffers, E. Andersson, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 012329 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andersson, E.

R. J. Donaldson, R. J. Collins, K. Kleczkowska, R. Amiri, P. Wallden, V. Dunjko, J. Jeffers, E. Andersson, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 012329 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Amiri, P. Wallden, A. Kent, and E. Andersson, Phys. Rev. A 93, 032325 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. Arrazola, P. Wallden, and E. Andersson, Quantum Inf. Comput. 16, 0435 (2016).

C. Croal, C. Peuntinger, B. Heim, I. Khan, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, P. Wallden, E. Andersson, and N. Korolkova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 100503 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. J. Collins, R. J. Donaldson, V. Dunjko, P. Wallden, P. J. Clarke, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 040502 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. J. Clarke, R. J. Collins, V. Dunjko, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Nat. Commun. 3, 1174 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arrazola, J. M.

J. M. Arrazola, P. Wallden, and E. Andersson, Quantum Inf. Comput. 16, 0435 (2016).

Asai, T.

Buller, G. S.

R. J. Donaldson, R. J. Collins, K. Kleczkowska, R. Amiri, P. Wallden, V. Dunjko, J. Jeffers, E. Andersson, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 012329 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. J. Collins, R. J. Donaldson, V. Dunjko, P. Wallden, P. J. Clarke, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 040502 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. J. Clarke, R. J. Collins, V. Dunjko, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Nat. Commun. 3, 1174 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. S. Buller and R. J. Collins, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 012002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Clarke, P. J.

R. J. Collins, R. J. Donaldson, V. Dunjko, P. Wallden, P. J. Clarke, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 040502 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. J. Clarke, R. J. Collins, V. Dunjko, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Nat. Commun. 3, 1174 (2012).
[Crossref]

Collins, R. J.

R. J. Donaldson, R. J. Collins, K. Kleczkowska, R. Amiri, P. Wallden, V. Dunjko, J. Jeffers, E. Andersson, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 012329 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. J. Collins, R. J. Donaldson, V. Dunjko, P. Wallden, P. J. Clarke, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 040502 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. J. Clarke, R. J. Collins, V. Dunjko, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Nat. Commun. 3, 1174 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. S. Buller and R. J. Collins, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 012002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Croal, C.

C. Croal, C. Peuntinger, B. Heim, I. Khan, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, P. Wallden, E. Andersson, and N. Korolkova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 100503 (2016).
[Crossref]

Diamanti, E.

E. Diamanti, “Security and implementation of differential phase shift quantum key distribution systems,” Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2006).

Dixon, A. R.

Domeki, T.

Donaldson, R. J.

R. J. Donaldson, R. J. Collins, K. Kleczkowska, R. Amiri, P. Wallden, V. Dunjko, J. Jeffers, E. Andersson, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 012329 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. J. Collins, R. J. Donaldson, V. Dunjko, P. Wallden, P. J. Clarke, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 040502 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dunjko, V.

R. J. Donaldson, R. J. Collins, K. Kleczkowska, R. Amiri, P. Wallden, V. Dunjko, J. Jeffers, E. Andersson, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 012329 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. J. Collins, R. J. Donaldson, V. Dunjko, P. Wallden, P. J. Clarke, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 040502 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. J. Clarke, R. J. Collins, V. Dunjko, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Nat. Commun. 3, 1174 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dynes, J. F.

Fujiwara, M.

Gisin, N.

B. Korzh, N. Walenta, T. Lunghi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hadfield, R. H.

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25, 063001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, T.

Heim, B.

C. Croal, C. Peuntinger, B. Heim, I. Khan, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, P. Wallden, E. Andersson, and N. Korolkova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 100503 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hoeffding, W.

W. Hoeffding, J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 58, 13 (1963).
[Crossref]

Honjo, T.

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ishizuka, H.

Ito, T.

Jeffers, J.

R. J. Donaldson, R. J. Collins, K. Kleczkowska, R. Amiri, P. Wallden, V. Dunjko, J. Jeffers, E. Andersson, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 012329 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. J. Collins, R. J. Donaldson, V. Dunjko, P. Wallden, P. J. Clarke, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 040502 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. J. Clarke, R. J. Collins, V. Dunjko, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Nat. Commun. 3, 1174 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kato, G.

K. Tamaki, M. Koashi, and G. Kato, “Unconditional security of coherent-state-based differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol with block-wise phase randomization,” arXiv:1208.1995 [quant-ph] (2012).

Kent, A.

R. Amiri, P. Wallden, A. Kent, and E. Andersson, Phys. Rev. A 93, 032325 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khan, I.

C. Croal, C. Peuntinger, B. Heim, I. Khan, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, P. Wallden, E. Andersson, and N. Korolkova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 100503 (2016).
[Crossref]

Klaus, W.

Kleczkowska, K.

R. J. Donaldson, R. J. Collins, K. Kleczkowska, R. Amiri, P. Wallden, V. Dunjko, J. Jeffers, E. Andersson, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 012329 (2016).
[Crossref]

Koashi, M.

K. Tamaki, M. Koashi, and G. Kato, “Unconditional security of coherent-state-based differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol with block-wise phase randomization,” arXiv:1208.1995 [quant-ph] (2012).

Kobayashi, H.

Korolkova, N.

C. Croal, C. Peuntinger, B. Heim, I. Khan, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, P. Wallden, E. Andersson, and N. Korolkova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 100503 (2016).
[Crossref]

Korzh, B.

B. Korzh, N. Walenta, T. Lunghi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Länger, T.

Legré, M.

Leuchs, G.

C. Croal, C. Peuntinger, B. Heim, I. Khan, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, P. Wallden, E. Andersson, and N. Korolkova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 100503 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lunghi, T.

B. Korzh, N. Walenta, T. Lunghi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marquardt, C.

C. Croal, C. Peuntinger, B. Heim, I. Khan, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, P. Wallden, E. Andersson, and N. Korolkova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 100503 (2016).
[Crossref]

Matsui, M.

Maurhart, O.

Miki, S.

Monat, L.

Nambu, Y.

Natarajan, C. M.

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25, 063001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ochi, T.

Page, J.-B.

Peev, M.

Peuntinger, C.

C. Croal, C. Peuntinger, B. Heim, I. Khan, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, P. Wallden, E. Andersson, and N. Korolkova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 100503 (2016).
[Crossref]

Poppe, A.

Ribordy, G.

Robyr, S.

Sakai, Y.

Sasaki, M.

Sharpe, A. W.

Shields, A. J.

Shimizu, K.

Tajima, A.

Takahashi, S.

Takeoka, M.

Takesue, H.

Tamaki, K.

Tanaka, A.

Tanner, M. G.

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25, 063001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Terai, H.

Tokura, T.

Tokura, Y.

Tomita, A.

Trinkler, P.

Tsurumaru, T.

Uchikoga, S.

Waks, E.

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wakui, K.

Walenta, N.

B. Korzh, N. Walenta, T. Lunghi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wallden, P.

R. J. Donaldson, R. J. Collins, K. Kleczkowska, R. Amiri, P. Wallden, V. Dunjko, J. Jeffers, E. Andersson, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 012329 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Amiri, P. Wallden, A. Kent, and E. Andersson, Phys. Rev. A 93, 032325 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. Arrazola, P. Wallden, and E. Andersson, Quantum Inf. Comput. 16, 0435 (2016).

C. Croal, C. Peuntinger, B. Heim, I. Khan, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, P. Wallden, E. Andersson, and N. Korolkova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 100503 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. J. Collins, R. J. Donaldson, V. Dunjko, P. Wallden, P. J. Clarke, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 040502 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Yamamoto, Y.

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, T.

Yoshino, K.

Yuan, Z. L.

Zbinden, H.

B. Korzh, N. Walenta, T. Lunghi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zeilinger, A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Korzh, N. Walenta, T. Lunghi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 081108 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Stat. Assoc. (1)

W. Hoeffding, J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 58, 13 (1963).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. S. Buller and R. J. Collins, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 012002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

P. J. Clarke, R. J. Collins, V. Dunjko, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Nat. Commun. 3, 1174 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

R. Amiri, P. Wallden, A. Kent, and E. Andersson, Phys. Rev. A 93, 032325 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. J. Donaldson, R. J. Collins, K. Kleczkowska, R. Amiri, P. Wallden, V. Dunjko, J. Jeffers, E. Andersson, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 012329 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

R. J. Collins, R. J. Donaldson, V. Dunjko, P. Wallden, P. J. Clarke, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 040502 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Croal, C. Peuntinger, B. Heim, I. Khan, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, P. Wallden, E. Andersson, and N. Korolkova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 100503 (2016).
[Crossref]

Quantum Inf. Comput. (1)

J. M. Arrazola, P. Wallden, and E. Andersson, Quantum Inf. Comput. 16, 0435 (2016).

Supercond. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25, 063001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

E. Diamanti, “Security and implementation of differential phase shift quantum key distribution systems,” Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2006).

K. Tamaki, M. Koashi, and G. Kato, “Unconditional security of coherent-state-based differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol with block-wise phase randomization,” arXiv:1208.1995 [quant-ph] (2012).

The dataset for the work reported in this Letter is available under open-access from doi: 10.17861/e9601420-6e29-423c-9bbd-04f3caee5820.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the processes carried out to perform the distribution stage of QDS. Bob and Charlie conduct QKD with Alice, without error correction and privacy amplification, to generate partially correlated bit sequences. These are then post-processed over a shared QKD link between Bob and Charlie to generate the QDSs.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. DPS system employed to carry out QDS generation. LD is a CW laser diode; IM is an intensity modulator used to generate optical pulses at a clock rate of 1 GHz; PM is a phase modulator used to encode the potential bit value, chosen using a pseudo-random bit sequence from a field programmable gated array. The optical attenuator, ATT, selects a desired mean photon level, while E/O is an electrical to optical encoder that transmits the clock pulse used to phase-lock the sender and receiver. At the receiver, Alice, the photons from the sender, Bob or Charlie, were detected by superconducting single-photon detectors and a digital signal processor) used to compile the data for signature generation. Clock recovery is carried out by the optical to electrical encoder O/E. MZI is a delay of duration T , the time between successive pulses introduced by the IM.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Comparison between the work presented in this Letter (blue filled square), previous optical fiber-based demonstrations employing USE at the same | α | 2 of 0.2 (red hollow triangles), previous optical fiber-based demonstrations employing USE at a near optimal | α | 2 of 0.4 (magenta hollow circles), and a recent work employing continuous variable QKD to QDS over a free-space link (orange hollow star); see the dataset [16].

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P e = 1 Max { 2 μ ( 1 T ) + ( 1 2 μ ( 1 T ) ) ( 1 e 2 1 2 ( 1 6 e ) 2 ) , 2 d e + 1 2 ( 1 2 d e ) } ,
P e = 0.262 .
Prob ( Honest    Abort ) 2 Exp [ ( s a e ) 2 L ] ,
Prob ( Repudiation ) 2 Exp [ ( s v s a 2 ) 2 L ] ,
Prob ( Forge ) Exp [ ( P e s v ) 2 L ] .

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