Abstract

Line-field reflection confocal microscopy (LF-RCM) has the potential to add a dimension of parallelization to traditional confocal microscopy while reducing the need for two-axis beam scanning. LF-RCM systems often employ light sources with a high degree of spatial coherence. This high degree of spatial coherence potentially leads to unwanted coherent artifact in the setting of nontrivial sample scattering. Here, we (a) confirm that a coherent artifact is a nontrivial problem in LF-RCM when using spatially coherent light, and (b) demonstrate that such a coherent artifact can be mitigated through the use of reduced spatial coherence line-field sources. We demonstrate coherent noise suppression in a full-pupil line-field confocal microscope using a large number of mutually incoherent emitters from a vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) array. The coherent noise from a highly scattering sample is significantly suppressed by the use of this synthesized reduced spatial coherence light source compared to a fully coherent light source. Lastly, with scattering samples, the axial confocality of line-field confocal microscopy is compromised independent of the source spatial coherence, as demonstrated by our experimental result. Our results highlight the importance of spatial coherence engineering in parallelized reflection confocal microscopy.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2016 (3)

C. G. Liu, S. Knitter, Z. L. Cong, I. Sencan, H. Cao, and M. A. Choma, Opt. Express 24, 9251 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. H. Hokr, M. S. Schmidt, J. N. Bixler, P. N. Dyer, G. D. Noojin, B. Redding, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, H. Cao, V. V. Yakovlev, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 63, 46 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Knitter, C. G. Liu, B. Redding, M. K. Khokha, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Optica 3, 403 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

B. Redding, A. Cerjan, X. Huang, M. L. Lee, A. D. Stone, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 1304 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. K. T. Que, N. Fraga-Braghiroli, J. M. Grant-Kels, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, and A. Scope, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 73, 276 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. G. Liu and M. K. Kim, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 111203 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Nat. Photonics 6, 355 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, B. M. Guo, A. Miglo, Q. Wang, P. Pradhan, J. D. Wynn, V. Khalfin, W. X. Zou, C. Ghosh, and R. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 7952, 79520G (2011).

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

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Amthor, F.

Bixler, J. N.

B. H. Hokr, M. S. Schmidt, J. N. Bixler, P. N. Dyer, G. D. Noojin, B. Redding, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, H. Cao, V. V. Yakovlev, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 63, 46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bromberg, Y.

Cao, H.

S. Knitter, C. G. Liu, B. Redding, M. K. Khokha, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Optica 3, 403 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. G. Liu, S. Knitter, Z. L. Cong, I. Sencan, H. Cao, and M. A. Choma, Opt. Express 24, 9251 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. H. Hokr, M. S. Schmidt, J. N. Bixler, P. N. Dyer, G. D. Noojin, B. Redding, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, H. Cao, V. V. Yakovlev, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 63, 46 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Redding, A. Cerjan, X. Huang, M. L. Lee, A. D. Stone, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 1304 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Redding, Y. Bromberg, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Opt. Lett. 39, 4446 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Nixon, B. Redding, A. A. Friesem, H. Cao, and N. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 38, 3858 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Nat. Photonics 6, 355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cerjan, A.

B. Redding, A. Cerjan, X. Huang, M. L. Lee, A. D. Stone, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 1304 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

Choma, M. A.

Cong, Z. L.

Davidson, N.

Dilworth, D.

DiMarzio, C. A.

Dwyer, P. J.

Dyer, P. N.

B. H. Hokr, M. S. Schmidt, J. N. Bixler, P. N. Dyer, G. D. Noojin, B. Redding, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, H. Cao, V. V. Yakovlev, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 63, 46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, R. D.

Fox, W. J.

Fraga-Braghiroli, N.

S. K. T. Que, N. Fraga-Braghiroli, J. M. Grant-Kels, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, and A. Scope, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 73, 276 (2015).
[Crossref]

Friesem, A. A.

Gentile, E.

A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, A. Romano, C. Maio, L. Laino, and R. Serpico, J. Oral Pathol. Med., ePub May 27, 2016. DOI 10.1111/jop.12454
[Crossref]

Ghosh, C.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, B. M. Guo, A. Miglo, Q. Wang, P. Pradhan, J. D. Wynn, V. Khalfin, W. X. Zou, C. Ghosh, and R. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 7952, 79520G (2011).

Grant-Kels, J. M.

S. K. T. Que, N. Fraga-Braghiroli, J. M. Grant-Kels, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, and A. Scope, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 73, 276 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guo, B. M.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, B. M. Guo, A. Miglo, Q. Wang, P. Pradhan, J. D. Wynn, V. Khalfin, W. X. Zou, C. Ghosh, and R. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 7952, 79520G (2011).

Hammer, D. X.

Han, S. M.

Hokr, B. H.

B. H. Hokr, M. S. Schmidt, J. N. Bixler, P. N. Dyer, G. D. Noojin, B. Redding, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, H. Cao, V. V. Yakovlev, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 63, 46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

B. Redding, A. Cerjan, X. Huang, M. L. Lee, A. D. Stone, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 1304 (2015).
[Crossref]

Iftimia, N.

Im, K. B.

Karamata, B.

Khalfin, V.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, B. M. Guo, A. Miglo, Q. Wang, P. Pradhan, J. D. Wynn, V. Khalfin, W. X. Zou, C. Ghosh, and R. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 7952, 79520G (2011).

Khokha, M. K.

Kim, B. M.

Kim, D.

Kim, M. K.

C. G. Liu and M. K. Kim, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 111203 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. G. Liu, S. Marchesini, and M. K. Kim, Opt. Express 22, 17830 (2014).
[Crossref]

Knitter, S.

Laino, L.

A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, A. Romano, C. Maio, L. Laino, and R. Serpico, J. Oral Pathol. Med., ePub May 27, 2016. DOI 10.1111/jop.12454
[Crossref]

Lambelet, P.

Lasser, T.

Laubscher, M.

Lee, M. L.

B. Redding, A. Cerjan, X. Huang, M. L. Lee, A. D. Stone, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 1304 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leith, E. N.

Li, Y. G.

Liu, C. G.

Liu, L.

Lopez, J.

Lucchese, A.

A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, A. Romano, C. Maio, L. Laino, and R. Serpico, J. Oral Pathol. Med., ePub May 27, 2016. DOI 10.1111/jop.12454
[Crossref]

Maio, C.

A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, A. Romano, C. Maio, L. Laino, and R. Serpico, J. Oral Pathol. Med., ePub May 27, 2016. DOI 10.1111/jop.12454
[Crossref]

Marchesini, S.

Miglo, A.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, B. M. Guo, A. Miglo, Q. Wang, P. Pradhan, J. D. Wynn, V. Khalfin, W. X. Zou, C. Ghosh, and R. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 7952, 79520G (2011).

Mujat, M.

Nixon, M.

Noojin, G. D.

B. H. Hokr, M. S. Schmidt, J. N. Bixler, P. N. Dyer, G. D. Noojin, B. Redding, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, H. Cao, V. V. Yakovlev, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 63, 46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Oliviero, M.

S. K. T. Que, N. Fraga-Braghiroli, J. M. Grant-Kels, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, and A. Scope, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 73, 276 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

Pradhan, P.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, B. M. Guo, A. Miglo, Q. Wang, P. Pradhan, J. D. Wynn, V. Khalfin, W. X. Zou, C. Ghosh, and R. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 7952, 79520G (2011).

Que, S. K. T.

S. K. T. Que, N. Fraga-Braghiroli, J. M. Grant-Kels, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, and A. Scope, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 73, 276 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rabinovitz, H. S.

S. K. T. Que, N. Fraga-Braghiroli, J. M. Grant-Kels, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, and A. Scope, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 73, 276 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

Redding, B.

B. H. Hokr, M. S. Schmidt, J. N. Bixler, P. N. Dyer, G. D. Noojin, B. Redding, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, H. Cao, V. V. Yakovlev, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 63, 46 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Knitter, C. G. Liu, B. Redding, M. K. Khokha, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Optica 3, 403 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Redding, A. Cerjan, X. Huang, M. L. Lee, A. D. Stone, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 1304 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Redding, Y. Bromberg, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Opt. Lett. 39, 4446 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Nixon, B. Redding, A. A. Friesem, H. Cao, and N. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 38, 3858 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Nat. Photonics 6, 355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rockwell, B. A.

B. H. Hokr, M. S. Schmidt, J. N. Bixler, P. N. Dyer, G. D. Noojin, B. Redding, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, H. Cao, V. V. Yakovlev, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 63, 46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Romano, A.

A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, A. Romano, C. Maio, L. Laino, and R. Serpico, J. Oral Pathol. Med., ePub May 27, 2016. DOI 10.1111/jop.12454
[Crossref]

Salathe, R. P.

Schmidt, M. S.

B. H. Hokr, M. S. Schmidt, J. N. Bixler, P. N. Dyer, G. D. Noojin, B. Redding, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, H. Cao, V. V. Yakovlev, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 63, 46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Scope, A.

S. K. T. Que, N. Fraga-Braghiroli, J. M. Grant-Kels, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, and A. Scope, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 73, 276 (2015).
[Crossref]

Scully, M. O.

B. H. Hokr, M. S. Schmidt, J. N. Bixler, P. N. Dyer, G. D. Noojin, B. Redding, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, H. Cao, V. V. Yakovlev, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 63, 46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sencan, I.

Serpico, R.

A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, A. Romano, C. Maio, L. Laino, and R. Serpico, J. Oral Pathol. Med., ePub May 27, 2016. DOI 10.1111/jop.12454
[Crossref]

Seurin, J. F.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, B. M. Guo, A. Miglo, Q. Wang, P. Pradhan, J. D. Wynn, V. Khalfin, W. X. Zou, C. Ghosh, and R. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 7952, 79520G (2011).

Stone, A. D.

B. Redding, A. Cerjan, X. Huang, M. L. Lee, A. D. Stone, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 1304 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, P. C.

Thomas, R. J.

B. H. Hokr, M. S. Schmidt, J. N. Bixler, P. N. Dyer, G. D. Noojin, B. Redding, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, H. Cao, V. V. Yakovlev, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 63, 46 (2016).
[Crossref]

van Leeuwen, R.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, B. M. Guo, A. Miglo, Q. Wang, P. Pradhan, J. D. Wynn, V. Khalfin, W. X. Zou, C. Ghosh, and R. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 7952, 79520G (2011).

Wang, Q.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, B. M. Guo, A. Miglo, Q. Wang, P. Pradhan, J. D. Wynn, V. Khalfin, W. X. Zou, C. Ghosh, and R. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 7952, 79520G (2011).

Webb, R. H.

R. H. Webb, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wynn, J. D.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, B. M. Guo, A. Miglo, Q. Wang, P. Pradhan, J. D. Wynn, V. Khalfin, W. X. Zou, C. Ghosh, and R. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 7952, 79520G (2011).

Xu, G. Y.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, B. M. Guo, A. Miglo, Q. Wang, P. Pradhan, J. D. Wynn, V. Khalfin, W. X. Zou, C. Ghosh, and R. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 7952, 79520G (2011).

Yakovlev, V. V.

B. H. Hokr, M. S. Schmidt, J. N. Bixler, P. N. Dyer, G. D. Noojin, B. Redding, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, H. Cao, V. V. Yakovlev, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 63, 46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yao, X. C.

Zavislan, J. M.

Zou, W. X.

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, B. M. Guo, A. Miglo, Q. Wang, P. Pradhan, J. D. Wynn, V. Khalfin, W. X. Zou, C. Ghosh, and R. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 7952, 79520G (2011).

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

S. K. T. Que, N. Fraga-Braghiroli, J. M. Grant-Kels, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, and A. Scope, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 73, 276 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

C. G. Liu and M. K. Kim, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 111203 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

B. H. Hokr, M. S. Schmidt, J. N. Bixler, P. N. Dyer, G. D. Noojin, B. Redding, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, H. Cao, V. V. Yakovlev, and M. O. Scully, J. Mod. Opt. 63, 46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Nat. Photonics 6, 355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Optica (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

B. Redding, A. Cerjan, X. Huang, M. L. Lee, A. D. Stone, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 1304 (2015).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. F. Seurin, G. Y. Xu, B. M. Guo, A. Miglo, Q. Wang, P. Pradhan, J. D. Wynn, V. Khalfin, W. X. Zou, C. Ghosh, and R. van Leeuwen, Proc. SPIE 7952, 79520G (2011).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

R. H. Webb, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, A. Romano, C. Maio, L. Laino, and R. Serpico, J. Oral Pathol. Med., ePub May 27, 2016. DOI 10.1111/jop.12454
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Diagram of the imaging system. L1–L2, regular lenses with focal lengths of 50 mm and 150 mm, respectively; AS, aperture stop with two orthogonal slits to control the number of VCSELs; BS1–BS2, beam splitters; L3, regular lens of a focal length 100 mm, respectively; CL1–CL2, cylindrical lenses with focal lengths of 50 and 100 mm; FS1–FS2, slit apertures as field stops; L4, regular lens with a focal length of 200 mm;. GSM, galvanometer scanning mirror; MO, objective lens with a NA of 0.15 and a focal length of 20 mm; S, sample. L5–L7, regular lens with focal lengths of 400, 60, and 150 mm; FM, flipping mirror to port a HeNe laser into the imaging system.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Images of 1951 US Air Force Resolution Test Chart under different light sources. (a) Image of the light source with 115    V CSELs. (b) Image of the test chart under the light source (a). (c) Image of the light source with 15    V CSELs. (d) Image of the test chart illuminated by the light source (c). Line intensity plot of the edge feature denoted with the red line in (b), (d), and (f). (f) Image of the test chart illuminated by a HeNe laser. We attribute the presence of the intensity variation in (f) to diffraction caused by propagation through the optical system and the sample.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Images of a Teflon film. (a) Image with 115 VCSELs. (b) Image with 15 VCSELs. (c) Image with a HeNe laser. (d) Image with a white-light bulb. The white-light micrograph indicates inhomogeneous roughness to the Teflon film. This inhomogeneity is evident under LF-RCM with partially coherent illumination (a) and (b). However, LF-RCM with a fully coherent illumination yields a homogenous speckle pattern that obscures the subtle inhomogeneous detail present in the film.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Imaging an artificial sample where a Teflon film is tightly pressed onto a negative resolution test chart. (a) Diagram of the light propagation through and reflection by this sample. The shaded regions represent chrome. (b) Image with 115 VCSELs. (c) Image with 15 VCSELs. (d) Image with a HeNe laser.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Model of coherent crosstalk when the light of high and partial spatial coherence is used. Black (gray) lines are properly (improperly) mapped photons. The dashed lines are field phasors that add coherently.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Axial responses of LF-RCM for a mirror and Teflon film illuminated by different light sources. (a)–(c) Axial responses for mirror target illuminated by 115 VCSELs, 15 VCSELs, and a HeNe laser. (d)–(f) Axial responses for Teflon film illuminated by 115 VCSELs, 15 VCSELs, and a HeNe laser. We attribute the asymmetry of the axial responses to the asymmetric light distribution outside the focal plane due to an astigmatism introduced by the cylindrical lens [8,17].

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