Abstract

As2S3 glass has a unique combination of optical properties, such as wide transparency in the infrared region and a high nonlinear coefficient. Recently, intense research has been conducted to improve photonic devices using thin materials. In this Letter, highly uniform rectangular single-index and 2 dB/m loss step-index optical tapes have been drawn by the crucible technique. Low-loss (<0.15dB/cm) single-mode waveguides in chalcogenide glass tapes have been fabricated using femtosecond laser writing. Optical backscatter reflectometry has been used to study the origin of the optical losses. A detailed study of the laser writing process in thin glass is also presented to facilitate a repeatable waveguide inscription recipe.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

K. Kalli, C. Riziotis, A. Posporis, C. Markos, C. Koutsides, S. Ambran, A. S. Webb, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, J. K. Sahu, and P. G. R. Smith, Sens. Actuators B 209, 1030 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (1)

2012 (4)

2011 (3)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, and E. Bychkov, Opt. Mater. 33, 872 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Caulier, D. Le Coq, L. Calvez, E. Bychkov, and P. Masselin, Opt. Express 19, 20088 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

I. Blonskyi, V. Kadan, O. Shpotyuk, M. Iovu, and I. Pavlov, Opt. Mater. 32, 1553 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Pantelopoulos and N. G. Bourbakis, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. C 40, 1 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. Le Coq, P. Masselin, C. Przygodski, and E. Bychkov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1832 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lousteau, G. Jose, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and A. Jha, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1973 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D.-H. Kim and J. A. Rogers, Adv. Mater. 20, 4887 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2001 (1)

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Adikan, F. R. M.

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2006).

Ambran, S.

K. Kalli, C. Riziotis, A. Posporis, C. Markos, C. Koutsides, S. Ambran, A. S. Webb, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, J. K. Sahu, and P. G. R. Smith, Sens. Actuators B 209, 1030 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Ambran, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, A. S. Webb, L. G. Carpenter, F. R. M. Adikan, P. G. R. Smith, and J. K. Sahu, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2870 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arezki, B.

Belanger-Garnier, V.

S. Gorgutsa, V. Belanger-Garnier, B. Ung, J. Viens, B. Gosselin, S. LaRochelle, and Y. Messaddeq, Sensors 14, 19260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Benayas, A.

Benson, T. M.

J. Lousteau, G. Jose, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and A. Jha, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1973 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bernier, M.

Bérubé, J. P.

Blonskyi, I.

I. Blonskyi, V. Kadan, O. Shpotyuk, M. Iovu, and I. Pavlov, Opt. Mater. 32, 1553 (2010).
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Bourbakis, N. G.

A. Pantelopoulos and N. G. Bourbakis, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. C 40, 1 (2010).
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Brunéel, J. L.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bychkov, E.

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, and E. Bychkov, Opt. Mater. 33, 872 (2011).
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O. Caulier, D. Le Coq, L. Calvez, E. Bychkov, and P. Masselin, Opt. Express 19, 20088 (2011).
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D. Le Coq, P. Masselin, C. Przygodski, and E. Bychkov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1832 (2009).
[Crossref]

Caillaud, C.

Calvez, L.

Cardinal, T.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[Crossref]

Carpenter, L. G.

Caulier, O.

Chen, D.

X. Wang, X. Lu, B. Liu, D. Chen, Y. Tong, and G. Shen, Adv. Mater. 26, 4763 (2014).
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Chen, K. P.

Chen, R. T.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, Sci. Rep. 2, 622 (2012).

Cheng, G.

Chocat, N.

N. Chocat, G. Lestoquoy, Z. Wang, D. M. Rodgers, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mater. 24, 5327 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, C. C.

Choi, J. H.

Couzi, M.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[Crossref]

D’Amico, C.

Davis, K. M.

Efimov, O. M.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
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B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Fink, Y.

N. Chocat, G. Lestoquoy, Z. Wang, D. M. Rodgers, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mater. 24, 5327 (2012).
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Furniss, D.

J. Lousteau, G. Jose, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and A. Jha, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1973 (2009).
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Gagné, M.

Gates, J. C.

K. Kalli, C. Riziotis, A. Posporis, C. Markos, C. Koutsides, S. Ambran, A. S. Webb, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, J. K. Sahu, and P. G. R. Smith, Sens. Actuators B 209, 1030 (2015).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Glebov, L. B.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
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Gosselin, B.

S. Gorgutsa, V. Belanger-Garnier, B. Ung, J. Viens, B. Gosselin, S. LaRochelle, and Y. Messaddeq, Sensors 14, 19260 (2014).
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Haas, D.

Hirao, K.

Hô, N.

Holmes, C.

K. Kalli, C. Riziotis, A. Posporis, C. Markos, C. Koutsides, S. Ambran, A. S. Webb, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, J. K. Sahu, and P. G. R. Smith, Sens. Actuators B 209, 1030 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Ambran, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, A. S. Webb, L. G. Carpenter, F. R. M. Adikan, P. G. R. Smith, and J. K. Sahu, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2870 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

Iovu, M.

I. Blonskyi, V. Kadan, O. Shpotyuk, M. Iovu, and I. Pavlov, Opt. Mater. 32, 1553 (2010).
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Jaque, D.

Jha, A.

J. Lousteau, G. Jose, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and A. Jha, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1973 (2009).
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N. Chocat, G. Lestoquoy, Z. Wang, D. M. Rodgers, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mater. 24, 5327 (2012).
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Jose, G.

J. Lousteau, G. Jose, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and A. Jha, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1973 (2009).
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Kadan, V.

I. Blonskyi, V. Kadan, O. Shpotyuk, M. Iovu, and I. Pavlov, Opt. Mater. 32, 1553 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kalli, K.

K. Kalli, C. Riziotis, A. Posporis, C. Markos, C. Koutsides, S. Ambran, A. S. Webb, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, J. K. Sahu, and P. G. R. Smith, Sens. Actuators B 209, 1030 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kashyap, R.

J. Lapointe, M. Gagné, M.-J. Li, and R. Kashyap, Opt. Express 22, 15473 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lapointe and R. Kashyap, Laser Processed Photonic Devices, in Planar Waveguides and other Confined Geometries (Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Kern, P.

Kim, D.-H.

D.-H. Kim and J. A. Rogers, Adv. Mater. 20, 4887 (2008).
[Crossref]

Koutsides, C.

K. Kalli, C. Riziotis, A. Posporis, C. Markos, C. Koutsides, S. Ambran, A. S. Webb, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, J. K. Sahu, and P. G. R. Smith, Sens. Actuators B 209, 1030 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lapointe, J.

J. Lapointe, M. Gagné, M.-J. Li, and R. Kashyap, Opt. Express 22, 15473 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lapointe and R. Kashyap, Laser Processed Photonic Devices, in Planar Waveguides and other Confined Geometries (Springer-Verlag, 2014).

LaRochelle, S.

S. Gorgutsa, V. Belanger-Garnier, B. Ung, J. Viens, B. Gosselin, S. LaRochelle, and Y. Messaddeq, Sensors 14, 19260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Le Coq, D.

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, and E. Bychkov, Opt. Mater. 33, 872 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Caulier, D. Le Coq, L. Calvez, E. Bychkov, and P. Masselin, Opt. Express 19, 20088 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Le Coq, P. Masselin, C. Przygodski, and E. Bychkov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1832 (2009).
[Crossref]

LeCoarer, E.

Lestoquoy, G.

N. Chocat, G. Lestoquoy, Z. Wang, D. M. Rodgers, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mater. 24, 5327 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, Sci. Rep. 2, 622 (2012).

Li, L.

Li, M.

Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, Sci. Rep. 2, 622 (2012).

Li, M.-J.

Lin, H.

Lin, L.

Liu, B.

X. Wang, X. Lu, B. Liu, D. Chen, Y. Tong, and G. Shen, Adv. Mater. 26, 4763 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. J.

Lopez, C.

Lousteau, J.

J. Lousteau, G. Jose, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and A. Jha, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1973 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

X. Wang, X. Lu, B. Liu, D. Chen, Y. Tong, and G. Shen, Adv. Mater. 26, 4763 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Ma, Z.

Magera, J.

Markos, C.

K. Kalli, C. Riziotis, A. Posporis, C. Markos, C. Koutsides, S. Ambran, A. S. Webb, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, J. K. Sahu, and P. G. R. Smith, Sens. Actuators B 209, 1030 (2015).
[Crossref]

Martin, G.

Masselin, P.

O. Caulier, D. Le Coq, L. Calvez, E. Bychkov, and P. Masselin, Opt. Express 19, 20088 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, and E. Bychkov, Opt. Mater. 33, 872 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Le Coq, P. Masselin, C. Przygodski, and E. Bychkov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1832 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mauclair, C.

McMillen, B.

Messaddeq, S. H.

Messaddeq, Y.

J. P. Bérubé, S. H. Messaddeq, M. Bernier, I. Skripachev, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallée, Opt. Express 22, 26103 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Gorgutsa, V. Belanger-Garnier, B. Ung, J. Viens, B. Gosselin, S. LaRochelle, and Y. Messaddeq, Sensors 14, 19260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

Nazabal, V.

Pantelopoulos, A.

A. Pantelopoulos and N. G. Bourbakis, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. C 40, 1 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, S. H.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[Crossref]

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology (Wiley, 2008).

Pavlov, I.

I. Blonskyi, V. Kadan, O. Shpotyuk, M. Iovu, and I. Pavlov, Opt. Mater. 32, 1553 (2010).
[Crossref]

Posporis, A.

K. Kalli, C. Riziotis, A. Posporis, C. Markos, C. Koutsides, S. Ambran, A. S. Webb, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, J. K. Sahu, and P. G. R. Smith, Sens. Actuators B 209, 1030 (2015).
[Crossref]

Przygodski, C.

D. Le Coq, P. Masselin, C. Przygodski, and E. Bychkov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1832 (2009).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K.

Richardson, K. A.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[Crossref]

Richardson, M.

Rivero, C.

Riziotis, C.

K. Kalli, C. Riziotis, A. Posporis, C. Markos, C. Koutsides, S. Ambran, A. S. Webb, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, J. K. Sahu, and P. G. R. Smith, Sens. Actuators B 209, 1030 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rodgers, D. M.

N. Chocat, G. Lestoquoy, Z. Wang, D. M. Rodgers, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mater. 24, 5327 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rogers, J. A.

D.-H. Kim and J. A. Rogers, Adv. Mater. 20, 4887 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sahu, J. K.

K. Kalli, C. Riziotis, A. Posporis, C. Markos, C. Koutsides, S. Ambran, A. S. Webb, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, J. K. Sahu, and P. G. R. Smith, Sens. Actuators B 209, 1030 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Ambran, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, A. S. Webb, L. G. Carpenter, F. R. M. Adikan, P. G. R. Smith, and J. K. Sahu, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2870 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schulte, A.

Seddon, A. B.

J. Lousteau, G. Jose, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and A. Jha, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1973 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shen, G.

X. Wang, X. Lu, B. Liu, D. Chen, Y. Tong, and G. Shen, Adv. Mater. 26, 4763 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shpotyuk, O.

I. Blonskyi, V. Kadan, O. Shpotyuk, M. Iovu, and I. Pavlov, Opt. Mater. 32, 1553 (2010).
[Crossref]

Skripachev, I.

Smith, P. G. R.

K. Kalli, C. Riziotis, A. Posporis, C. Markos, C. Koutsides, S. Ambran, A. S. Webb, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, J. K. Sahu, and P. G. R. Smith, Sens. Actuators B 209, 1030 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Ambran, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, A. S. Webb, L. G. Carpenter, F. R. M. Adikan, P. G. R. Smith, and J. K. Sahu, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2870 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stoian, R.

Sugimoto, N.

Tong, Y.

X. Wang, X. Lu, B. Liu, D. Chen, Y. Tong, and G. Shen, Adv. Mater. 26, 4763 (2014).
[Crossref]

Troles, J.

Ung, B.

S. Gorgutsa, V. Belanger-Garnier, B. Ung, J. Viens, B. Gosselin, S. LaRochelle, and Y. Messaddeq, Sensors 14, 19260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vallée, R.

Van Stryland, E.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[Crossref]

Viens, J.

S. Gorgutsa, V. Belanger-Garnier, B. Ung, J. Viens, B. Gosselin, S. LaRochelle, and Y. Messaddeq, Sensors 14, 19260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, X. Lu, B. Liu, D. Chen, Y. Tong, and G. Shen, Adv. Mater. 26, 4763 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

N. Chocat, G. Lestoquoy, Z. Wang, D. M. Rodgers, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mater. 24, 5327 (2012).
[Crossref]

Webb, A. S.

K. Kalli, C. Riziotis, A. Posporis, C. Markos, C. Koutsides, S. Ambran, A. S. Webb, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, J. K. Sahu, and P. G. R. Smith, Sens. Actuators B 209, 1030 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Ambran, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, A. S. Webb, L. G. Carpenter, F. R. M. Adikan, P. G. R. Smith, and J. K. Sahu, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2870 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, P.

Zhou, W.

Zoubir, A.

Adv. Mater. (3)

D.-H. Kim and J. A. Rogers, Adv. Mater. 20, 4887 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, X. Lu, B. Liu, D. Chen, Y. Tong, and G. Shen, Adv. Mater. 26, 4763 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Chocat, G. Lestoquoy, Z. Wang, D. M. Rodgers, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Adv. Mater. 24, 5327 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. C (1)

A. Pantelopoulos and N. G. Bourbakis, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. C 40, 1 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

J. Lousteau, G. Jose, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and A. Jha, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1973 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Le Coq, P. Masselin, C. Przygodski, and E. Bychkov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 1832 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, Nat. Photonics 5, 141 (2011).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (3)

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, and E. Bychkov, Opt. Mater. 33, 872 (2011).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Y. Chen, H. Li, and M. Li, Sci. Rep. 2, 622 (2012).

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K. Kalli, C. Riziotis, A. Posporis, C. Markos, C. Koutsides, S. Ambran, A. S. Webb, C. Holmes, J. C. Gates, J. K. Sahu, and P. G. R. Smith, Sens. Actuators B 209, 1030 (2015).
[Crossref]

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S. Gorgutsa, V. Belanger-Garnier, B. Ung, J. Viens, B. Gosselin, S. LaRochelle, and Y. Messaddeq, Sensors 14, 19260 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Representation of the ChG tape fabrication technique. (a) As40S60 glass rod of 200 g weight and 25 mm diameter. (b) Specially designed fused silica crucible. (c) 7 m long ChG tape. (d) 250 μm thick ChG tape wrapped around a 6.35 mm radius rod. (e) Facet view of a directly drawn step-index waveguide and its near field mode profile (f).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Top view (a) and facet view (b) of a single laser scan waveguide. Near field mode profile of a double laser scan waveguide (c). Top view (e), facet view (f), and the near field mode profile (g) of a multi-scan waveguide written in a 29 cm long, 2.5 mm wide, and 250 μm thick ChG tape (d). (h) Schematic of the multi-scan fs laser writing. (i) Near field mode profile when light is launched into the filament below a single laser scan, which suggests the formation of a planar waveguide.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Back-reflectometry of the 29 cm long single-mode waveguide showing a loss of <0.15dB/cm. The inset pictures show high scatter regions caused by defects.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Post-writing top view image of depth and average power analysis on waveguides. The waveguides were written from the surface (right) to bottom (left). The optimal parameters for waveguide writing are plotted in (b) as the red zone.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical back reflectometry of a 2.6 m long waveguide directly drawn in ChG tape.

Equations (1)

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NA=sinθ=(nclad+Δn)2nclad2=nclad2+2ncladΔn+Δn2nclad22ncladΔn.

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