Abstract

We demonstrate Raman spectroscopy on a high index thin film tantalum pentoxide waveguide and compare collection of Raman emission from the waveguide end with that from the waveguide surface. Toluene was used as a convenient model analyte, and a 40-fold greater signal was collected from the waveguide end. Simulations of angular and spatial Raman emission distributions showed good agreement with experiments, with the enhancement resulting from efficient collection of power from dipoles near the surface into the high-index waveguide film and substrate, combined with long interaction length. The waveguide employed was optimized at the excitation wavelength but not at emission wavelengths, and full optimization is expected to lead to enhancements comparable to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in robust low-cost metal-free and nanostructure-free chips.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Dhakal, A. Raza, F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 23, 27391 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Dhakal, A. Z. Subramanian, P. Wuytens, F. Peyskens, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 39, 4025 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. Z. Wang, S. J. Pearce, Y.-C. Lin, M. N. Zervas, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, Appl. Spectrosc. 70, 1384 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Levy, C. Imbert, J. Cipriani, S. Racine, and R. Dupeyrat, Opt. Commun. 11, 66 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. F. Rabolt, R. Santo, and J. D. Swalen, Appl. Spectrosc. 33, 549 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. F. Rabolt, N. E. Schlotter, and J. D. Swalen, J. Phys. Chem. 85, 4141 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. E. Schlotter and J. F. Rabolt, J. Phys. Chem. 88, 2062 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. R. Miller and P. W. Bohn, Appl. Opt. 27, 2561 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. F. Rabolt, R. Santo, N. E. Schlotter, and J. D. Swalen, IBM J. Res. Dev. 26, 209 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Pope, A. Schulte, Y. Guo, L. K. Ono, B. Roldan Cuenya, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, K. Kitanovski, and T. Winningham, Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 249 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. S. Kanger, C. Otto, M. Slotboom, and J. Greve, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 3288 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. G. F. Baets, in Advanced Photonics 2013, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ST2B.5.
  13. C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. H. Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, Nat. Photonics 8, 627 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. S. Porto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 2 (1965).
  15. W. L. Barnes, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 661 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. Chen, J.-Y. Li, L. Wang, D.-F. Lu, and Z.-M. Qi, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 21278 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

A. Dhakal, A. Raza, F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 23, 27391 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, J.-Y. Li, L. Wang, D.-F. Lu, and Z.-M. Qi, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 21278 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. H. Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, Nat. Photonics 8, 627 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Dhakal, A. Z. Subramanian, P. Wuytens, F. Peyskens, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 39, 4025 (2014).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Pope, A. Schulte, Y. Guo, L. K. Ono, B. Roldan Cuenya, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, K. Kitanovski, and T. Winningham, Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 249 (2006).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

W. L. Barnes, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 661 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. S. Kanger, C. Otto, M. Slotboom, and J. Greve, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 3288 (1996).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1984 (1)

N. E. Schlotter and J. F. Rabolt, J. Phys. Chem. 88, 2062 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

J. F. Rabolt, R. Santo, N. E. Schlotter, and J. D. Swalen, IBM J. Res. Dev. 26, 209 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

J. F. Rabolt, N. E. Schlotter, and J. D. Swalen, J. Phys. Chem. 85, 4141 (1981).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

1974 (1)

Y. Levy, C. Imbert, J. Cipriani, S. Racine, and R. Dupeyrat, Opt. Commun. 11, 66 (1974).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

P. S. Porto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 2 (1965).

Baets, R.

Baets, R. G. F.

A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. G. F. Baets, in Advanced Photonics 2013, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ST2B.5.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 661 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bartlett, P. N.

Bohn, P. W.

Camp, C. H.

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. H. Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, Nat. Photonics 8, 627 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, J.-Y. Li, L. Wang, D.-F. Lu, and Z.-M. Qi, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 21278 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cicerone, M. T.

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. H. Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, Nat. Photonics 8, 627 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cipriani, J.

Y. Levy, C. Imbert, J. Cipriani, S. Racine, and R. Dupeyrat, Opt. Commun. 11, 66 (1974).
[Crossref]

Clemmen, S.

Dhakal, A.

A. Dhakal, A. Raza, F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 23, 27391 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Dhakal, A. Z. Subramanian, P. Wuytens, F. Peyskens, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 39, 4025 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. G. F. Baets, in Advanced Photonics 2013, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ST2B.5.

Dupeyrat, R.

Y. Levy, C. Imbert, J. Cipriani, S. Racine, and R. Dupeyrat, Opt. Commun. 11, 66 (1974).
[Crossref]

Greve, J.

J. S. Kanger, C. Otto, M. Slotboom, and J. Greve, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 3288 (1996).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y.

A. Pope, A. Schulte, Y. Guo, L. K. Ono, B. Roldan Cuenya, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, K. Kitanovski, and T. Winningham, Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hartshorn, C. M.

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. H. Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, Nat. Photonics 8, 627 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heddleston, J. M.

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. H. Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, Nat. Photonics 8, 627 (2014).
[Crossref]

Imbert, C.

Y. Levy, C. Imbert, J. Cipriani, S. Racine, and R. Dupeyrat, Opt. Commun. 11, 66 (1974).
[Crossref]

Kanger, J. S.

J. S. Kanger, C. Otto, M. Slotboom, and J. Greve, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 3288 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kitanovski, K.

A. Pope, A. Schulte, Y. Guo, L. K. Ono, B. Roldan Cuenya, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, K. Kitanovski, and T. Winningham, Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lathia, J. D.

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. H. Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, Nat. Photonics 8, 627 (2014).
[Crossref]

Le Thomas, N.

A. Dhakal, A. Raza, F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 23, 27391 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Dhakal, A. Z. Subramanian, P. Wuytens, F. Peyskens, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 39, 4025 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. G. F. Baets, in Advanced Photonics 2013, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ST2B.5.

Lee, Y. J.

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. H. Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, Nat. Photonics 8, 627 (2014).
[Crossref]

Levy, Y.

Y. Levy, C. Imbert, J. Cipriani, S. Racine, and R. Dupeyrat, Opt. Commun. 11, 66 (1974).
[Crossref]

Li, J.-Y.

C. Chen, J.-Y. Li, L. Wang, D.-F. Lu, and Z.-M. Qi, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 21278 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-C.

Lopez, C.

A. Pope, A. Schulte, Y. Guo, L. K. Ono, B. Roldan Cuenya, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, K. Kitanovski, and T. Winningham, Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, D.-F.

C. Chen, J.-Y. Li, L. Wang, D.-F. Lu, and Z.-M. Qi, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 21278 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. R.

Ono, L. K.

A. Pope, A. Schulte, Y. Guo, L. K. Ono, B. Roldan Cuenya, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, K. Kitanovski, and T. Winningham, Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Otto, C.

J. S. Kanger, C. Otto, M. Slotboom, and J. Greve, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 3288 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pearce, S. J.

Peyskens, F.

A. Dhakal, A. Raza, F. Peyskens, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 23, 27391 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Dhakal, A. Z. Subramanian, P. Wuytens, F. Peyskens, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 39, 4025 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. G. F. Baets, in Advanced Photonics 2013, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ST2B.5.

Pope, A.

A. Pope, A. Schulte, Y. Guo, L. K. Ono, B. Roldan Cuenya, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, K. Kitanovski, and T. Winningham, Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Porto, P. S.

P. S. Porto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 2 (1965).

Qi, Z.-M.

C. Chen, J.-Y. Li, L. Wang, D.-F. Lu, and Z.-M. Qi, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 21278 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rabolt, J. F.

N. E. Schlotter and J. F. Rabolt, J. Phys. Chem. 88, 2062 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. F. Rabolt, R. Santo, N. E. Schlotter, and J. D. Swalen, IBM J. Res. Dev. 26, 209 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. F. Rabolt, N. E. Schlotter, and J. D. Swalen, J. Phys. Chem. 85, 4141 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. F. Rabolt, R. Santo, and J. D. Swalen, Appl. Spectrosc. 33, 549 (1979).
[Crossref]

Racine, S.

Y. Levy, C. Imbert, J. Cipriani, S. Racine, and R. Dupeyrat, Opt. Commun. 11, 66 (1974).
[Crossref]

Raza, A.

Rich, J. N.

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. H. Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, Nat. Photonics 8, 627 (2014).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K.

A. Pope, A. Schulte, Y. Guo, L. K. Ono, B. Roldan Cuenya, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, K. Kitanovski, and T. Winningham, Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Roldan Cuenya, B.

A. Pope, A. Schulte, Y. Guo, L. K. Ono, B. Roldan Cuenya, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, K. Kitanovski, and T. Winningham, Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Santo, R.

J. F. Rabolt, R. Santo, N. E. Schlotter, and J. D. Swalen, IBM J. Res. Dev. 26, 209 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. F. Rabolt, R. Santo, and J. D. Swalen, Appl. Spectrosc. 33, 549 (1979).
[Crossref]

Schlotter, N. E.

N. E. Schlotter and J. F. Rabolt, J. Phys. Chem. 88, 2062 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. F. Rabolt, R. Santo, N. E. Schlotter, and J. D. Swalen, IBM J. Res. Dev. 26, 209 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. F. Rabolt, N. E. Schlotter, and J. D. Swalen, J. Phys. Chem. 85, 4141 (1981).
[Crossref]

Schulte, A.

A. Pope, A. Schulte, Y. Guo, L. K. Ono, B. Roldan Cuenya, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, K. Kitanovski, and T. Winningham, Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Slotboom, M.

J. S. Kanger, C. Otto, M. Slotboom, and J. Greve, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 3288 (1996).
[Crossref]

Subramanian, A.

A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. G. F. Baets, in Advanced Photonics 2013, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ST2B.5.

Subramanian, A. Z.

Swalen, J. D.

J. F. Rabolt, R. Santo, N. E. Schlotter, and J. D. Swalen, IBM J. Res. Dev. 26, 209 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. F. Rabolt, N. E. Schlotter, and J. D. Swalen, J. Phys. Chem. 85, 4141 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. F. Rabolt, R. Santo, and J. D. Swalen, Appl. Spectrosc. 33, 549 (1979).
[Crossref]

Walker, A. R. H.

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. H. Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, Nat. Photonics 8, 627 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

C. Chen, J.-Y. Li, L. Wang, D.-F. Lu, and Z.-M. Qi, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 21278 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Wilkinson, J. S.

Winningham, T.

A. Pope, A. Schulte, Y. Guo, L. K. Ono, B. Roldan Cuenya, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, K. Kitanovski, and T. Winningham, Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wuytens, P.

Zervas, M. N.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

J. F. Rabolt, R. Santo, N. E. Schlotter, and J. D. Swalen, IBM J. Res. Dev. 26, 209 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

W. L. Barnes, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 661 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (3)

J. S. Kanger, C. Otto, M. Slotboom, and J. Greve, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 3288 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. F. Rabolt, N. E. Schlotter, and J. D. Swalen, J. Phys. Chem. 85, 4141 (1981).
[Crossref]

N. E. Schlotter and J. F. Rabolt, J. Phys. Chem. 88, 2062 (1984).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. H. Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, Nat. Photonics 8, 627 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Levy, C. Imbert, J. Cipriani, S. Racine, and R. Dupeyrat, Opt. Commun. 11, 66 (1974).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

C. Chen, J.-Y. Li, L. Wang, D.-F. Lu, and Z.-M. Qi, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 21278 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. S. Porto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 2 (1965).

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

A. Pope, A. Schulte, Y. Guo, L. K. Ono, B. Roldan Cuenya, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, K. Kitanovski, and T. Winningham, Vib. Spectrosc. 42, 249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Subramanian, N. Le Thomas, and R. G. F. Baets, in Advanced Photonics 2013, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper ST2B.5.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental apparatus for waveguide enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Broken blue lines: waveguide surface collection configuration; solid green lines: waveguide end collection configuration. L1 and 2, lenses; LPF, long pass filter. The relative dimensions have been adjusted for clarity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Raman spectra of toluene from the waveguide end and surface. The surface spectrum has been multiplied by a factor of 10 and the end spectrum has been shifted up by 1 fW/nm for clarity. Both spectra have been background subtracted.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated dipole emission pattern (a) for a y -oriented dipole, including waveguide collection and (b) in the far field for x - and y -oriented dipoles.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Composite waveguide structure and ray diagrams indicating paths for dipole emission. The dipole emission shown is for the y -oriented dipole. (a) Downward emitted light trapped by the structure falls into the end-fiber collection cone; (b) upward emitted light escapes the composite structure and falls into the surface fiber collection cone; (c) upward emitted light trapped by the structure falls into the end fiber collection cone.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Proportion of Raman Dipole Power Emitting into Each Route

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