Abstract

Microscopic defects in optical fiber coatings can be an impending catastrophe for high-power fiber laser and telecommunications systems and are difficult to detect with conventional methods. We demonstrate a highly sensitive interrogation technique that can readily identify faults such as microscopic nicks, scrapes, low-quality recoatings, and internal defects in fibers and their coatings, based on skew ray excitation and angle-resolved analysis.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Watanabe and F. Ziegler, eds., IUTAM Symposium on Dynamics of Advanced Materials and Smart Structures (Springer Netherlands, 2003).
  2. M. N. Zervas and C. A. Codemard, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0904123 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Staff, and J. Maran, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951U (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. Woodward and E. B. Husson, Fiber Optics Installer and Technician Guide (Sybex, 2005).
  5. R. L. Adams, H. D. Garner, and R. Thornton, “Optical fiber coating defect detector,” U.S. patent6,927,849 B2 (August9, 2005).
  6. S. S. Patil and A. D. Shaligram, Photon. Sens. 5, 72 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. C. Gupta, Textbook on Optical Fiber Communication and Its Applications (PHI Learning Pvt., 2004).
  8. G. Y. Chen, C. A. Codemard, P. M. Gorman, J. S. Chan, and M. N. Zervas, J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 5210 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. Y. Chen, C. A. Codemard, R. J. Lewis, L. Jankowski, J. S. Chan, P. M. Gorman, and M. N. Zervas, Opt. Lett. 39, 3822 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Klein, C. Gonschior, R. Xia, G. Hillrichs, M. Bloos, and H. Poisel, Proc. SPIE 7559, 755909 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. S. Kovacevic, D. Nikezic, and A. Djordjevich, Appl. Opt. 44, 3898 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

2015 (2)

2014 (2)

2010 (1)

K. Klein, C. Gonschior, R. Xia, G. Hillrichs, M. Bloos, and H. Poisel, Proc. SPIE 7559, 755909 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Staff, and J. Maran, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951U (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Adams, R. L.

R. L. Adams, H. D. Garner, and R. Thornton, “Optical fiber coating defect detector,” U.S. patent6,927,849 B2 (August9, 2005).

Bloos, M.

K. Klein, C. Gonschior, R. Xia, G. Hillrichs, M. Bloos, and H. Poisel, Proc. SPIE 7559, 755909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cain-Staff, M.

M. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Staff, and J. Maran, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951U (2009).
[Crossref]

Chan, J. S.

Chatigny, S.

M. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Staff, and J. Maran, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951U (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. Y.

Codemard, C. A.

Djordjevich, A.

Garner, H. D.

R. L. Adams, H. D. Garner, and R. Thornton, “Optical fiber coating defect detector,” U.S. patent6,927,849 B2 (August9, 2005).

Gonschior, C.

K. Klein, C. Gonschior, R. Xia, G. Hillrichs, M. Bloos, and H. Poisel, Proc. SPIE 7559, 755909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gorman, P. M.

Gupta, S. C.

S. C. Gupta, Textbook on Optical Fiber Communication and Its Applications (PHI Learning Pvt., 2004).

Hillrichs, G.

K. Klein, C. Gonschior, R. Xia, G. Hillrichs, M. Bloos, and H. Poisel, Proc. SPIE 7559, 755909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Husson, E. B.

B. Woodward and E. B. Husson, Fiber Optics Installer and Technician Guide (Sybex, 2005).

Jankowski, L.

Klein, K.

K. Klein, C. Gonschior, R. Xia, G. Hillrichs, M. Bloos, and H. Poisel, Proc. SPIE 7559, 755909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kovacevic, M. S.

Lapointe, M.

M. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Staff, and J. Maran, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951U (2009).
[Crossref]

Lewis, R. J.

Love, J. D.

W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Maran, J.

M. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Staff, and J. Maran, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951U (2009).
[Crossref]

Nikezic, D.

Patil, S. S.

S. S. Patil and A. D. Shaligram, Photon. Sens. 5, 72 (2015).
[Crossref]

Piché, M.

M. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Staff, and J. Maran, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951U (2009).
[Crossref]

Poisel, H.

K. Klein, C. Gonschior, R. Xia, G. Hillrichs, M. Bloos, and H. Poisel, Proc. SPIE 7559, 755909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shaligram, A. D.

S. S. Patil and A. D. Shaligram, Photon. Sens. 5, 72 (2015).
[Crossref]

Snyder, W.

W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Thornton, R.

R. L. Adams, H. D. Garner, and R. Thornton, “Optical fiber coating defect detector,” U.S. patent6,927,849 B2 (August9, 2005).

Woodward, B.

B. Woodward and E. B. Husson, Fiber Optics Installer and Technician Guide (Sybex, 2005).

Xia, R.

K. Klein, C. Gonschior, R. Xia, G. Hillrichs, M. Bloos, and H. Poisel, Proc. SPIE 7559, 755909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zervas, M. N.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. N. Zervas and C. A. Codemard, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0904123 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Sens. (1)

S. S. Patil and A. D. Shaligram, Photon. Sens. 5, 72 (2015).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

K. Klein, C. Gonschior, R. Xia, G. Hillrichs, M. Bloos, and H. Poisel, Proc. SPIE 7559, 755909 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Staff, and J. Maran, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951U (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

B. Woodward and E. B. Husson, Fiber Optics Installer and Technician Guide (Sybex, 2005).

R. L. Adams, H. D. Garner, and R. Thornton, “Optical fiber coating defect detector,” U.S. patent6,927,849 B2 (August9, 2005).

W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

S. C. Gupta, Textbook on Optical Fiber Communication and Its Applications (PHI Learning Pvt., 2004).

K. Watanabe and F. Ziegler, eds., IUTAM Symposium on Dynamics of Advanced Materials and Smart Structures (Springer Netherlands, 2003).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Illustration of skew ray propagation with (a) axial and transverse angles and (b) the circular coverage of the fiber cross section.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of the interrogation system.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Labeled cross section of the double-clad FUT.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Photograph of (a) a nick in the coating, (b) the rubber-coated section, and (c) the microsphere inside the cladding.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Photograph of (a) the nicks scattering light; (b) the scrape scattering light, inset: cleaning effect; (c) the high-index recoating absorbing light; (d) the spray-on rubber recoating absorbing and scattering light; and (e) the internal microsphere scattering light when excited with angled red light.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Comparison of the angle-resolved power for a coating with an increasing number of nicks, and then a scrape that engulfs them all.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Selected region of Fig. 6 for the analysis of attenuation.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Comparison of the angle-resolved power for different recoatings.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Schematic of the femtosecond-laser writing system.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Comparison of the angle-resolved power for a cladding with and without an internal microsphere.

Equations (1)

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N r = cot θ z 2 R cos θ φ ,

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