Abstract

We show that with spatially incoherent illumination, the point spread function (PSF) width/spatial resolution of an imaging interferometer like that used in full-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) is almost insensitive to aberrations. In these systems, aberrations mostly induce a reduction of the signal level that leads to a loss of the signal-to-noise ratio without broadening the system PSF. This is demonstrated by comparison with traditional scanning OCT and wide-field OCT with spatially coherent illuminations. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculation as well as experimental results are provided to show this specific merit of incoherent illumination in full-field OCT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such a result has been demonstrated.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

B. M. Hoeling, A. D. Fernandez, R. C. Haskell, E. Huang, W. R. Myers, D. C. Petersen, S. E. Ungersma, R. Wang, M. E. Williams, and S. E. Fraser, Opt. Express 6, 136 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[Crossref]

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Cense, B.

Chang, W.

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[Crossref]

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Hitzenberger, C. K.

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[Crossref]

Lena, P.

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Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

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Rigaut, F.

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G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, and F. Merkle, Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29 (1990).

Rullière, C.

Salathé, R.

Salathé, R. P.

Sattmann, H.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Seitz, P.

Sticker, M.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[Crossref]

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Surlève Bazeille, J. E.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tearney, G. J.

Tsurumachi, N.

Ungersma, S. E.

Vabre, L.

Wang, R.

Williams, M. E.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wolf, E.

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Yun, S. H.

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Lena, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, and F. Merkle, Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29 (1990).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, Opt. Commun. 185, 57 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

H. Babcock, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 65, 229 (1953).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (CUP Archive, 2000).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company, 2005).

LLTech SAS, France, http://www.lltechimaging.com/ .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of single point scatterer interferences in both non-aberrated and aberrated sample arm PSF situations for a scanning OCT and a WDOCT with spatially coherent illumination, and a FFOCT with spatially incoherent illumination. (a), (g), and (m) Non-aberrated sample arm PSF. (d), (j), and (p) Aberrated sample arm PSF. (b) and (e) Scanning reference arm PSF for scanning OCT. (h) and (k) Constant reference field for WDOCT. (n) and (q) Reference arm PSFs for FFOCT. (c), (f) ,(i), (l), (o), and (r) The corresponding interference signal (system PSF). Different colors in (n) and (q) indicate the spatial incoherence from each other.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of the sample and reference wavefronts in a spatially incoherent interferometer with a single point scatterer in the cases of non-aberrated and aberrated sample arms. Different colors in the CAs and wavefronts indicate different spatial modes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Aberrated interference wavefronts and numerical simulations of the Strehl ratio and amplitude damping for interference with targeted CA and adjacent CAs. Defocus, astigmatism, coma, and spherical aberrations are considered. The damping for the coma varies depending on the spatial position of the adjacent CAs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

FFOCT experiment results of gold nanoparticles by adding different levels of defocusing. (a)–(d) FFOCT images and (e)–(h) the corresponding intensity profile of a targeted nanoparticle are shown for (a) and (e) well-focused and defocused situations for (b) and (f) 10 μm, (c) and (g) 20 μm, and (d) and (h) 30 μm. Normalized PSF profiles are shown in (i), indicating that no obvious broadening is observed after inducing different level of defocus.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g s = h s ( x a , y b ) .
g s g r s = h s ( x a , y b ) h r ( x x , y y ) d x d y .
g s g r w = h s ( x a , y b ) ,
g s g r f = h s ( x a , y b ) h r ( x a , y b ) .
s t = e ( std ( φ ) ) 2 s a = e ( std ( φ + φ 1 ) ) 2 ,
Amplitude damping ratio = s t s a ,

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