Abstract

We developed an optical coherence photoacoustic microscopy (OC-PAM) system, which can accomplish optical coherence tomography (OCT) and photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) simultaneously by using a single pulsed broadband light source. With a center wavelength of 800 nm and a bandwidth of 30 nm, the system is suitable for imaging the retina. Generated from the same group of photons, the OCT and PAM images are intrinsically registered in the lateral directions. To test the capabilities of the system on multimodal ophthalmic imaging, we imaged the retina of pigmented rats. The OCT images showed the retinal structures with quality similar to conventional OCT, while the PAM images revealed the distribution of absorbers in the retina. Since the absorption of hemoglobin is relatively weak at around 800 nm, the NIR PAM signals are generated mainly from melanin in the posterior segment of the eye, thus providing melanin-specific imaging of the retina.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (1)

2012 (2)

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and S. Jiao, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0305021 (2012).

T. Liu, Q. Wei, W. Song, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 792 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Protoc. 2, 797 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

A. Vogel and R. Birngruber, Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5, 9 (1992).

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Barton, J. K.

Birngruber, R.

A. Vogel and R. Birngruber, Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5, 9 (1992).

Burke, J. M.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Duker, J.

Fawzi, A.

Fawzi, A. A.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Sci. Rep.4, 6525 (2014).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J.

Gregori, G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Han, S.

Hee, M.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

Hu, S.

Huang, D.

E. A. Swanson, J. Izatt, C. Lin, J. Fujimoto, J. Schuman, M. Hee, D. Huang, and C. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

Jeon, M.

Jeon, M. Y.

Jiang, M.

Jiao, S.

Kim, C.

Kim, J.

Kim, S.

Knighton, R.

Ko, T.

Kowalczyk, A.

Ku, G.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Lee, C.

Li, L.

Lin, C.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Linsenmeier, R. A.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Sci. Rep.4, 6525 (2014).

Liu, T.

T. Liu, Q. Wei, W. Song, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 792 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Sci. Rep.4, 6525 (2014).

Liu, W.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Sci. Rep.4, 6525 (2014).

Maslov, K.

L. Li, K. Maslov, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Express 17, 16450 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Protoc. 2, 797 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[Crossref]

Puliafito, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

S. Jiao, M. Jiang, J. Hu, A. Fawzi, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, C. A. Puliafito, and H. F. Zhang, Opt. Express 18, 3967 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Jiao, Z. Xie, H. F. Zhang, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 34, 2961 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Schuman, J.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sheibani, N.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Sci. Rep.4, 6525 (2014).

Shung, K. K.

Song, W.

T. Liu, Q. Wei, W. Song, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 792 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Sci. Rep.4, 6525 (2014).

Srinivasan, V.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[Crossref]

Swanson, E. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. Izatt, C. Lin, J. Fujimoto, J. Schuman, M. Hee, D. Huang, and C. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel and R. Birngruber, Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5, 9 (1992).

Wang, L. V.

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011101 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Li, K. Maslov, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Express 17, 16450 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 3, 503 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Protoc. 2, 797 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. V. Wang and H.-I. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2007).

Wei, Q.

T. Liu, Q. Wei, W. Song, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 792 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Sci. Rep.4, 6525 (2014).

Welch, A. J.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wu, H.-I.

L. V. Wang and H.-I. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2007).

Xie, Z.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yi, J.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Sci. Rep.4, 6525 (2014).

Zhang, H. F.

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and S. Jiao, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0305021 (2012).

T. Liu, Q. Wei, W. Song, J. M. Burke, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 792 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Jiao, M. Jiang, J. Hu, A. Fawzi, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, C. A. Puliafito, and H. F. Zhang, Opt. Express 18, 3967 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Jiao, Z. Xie, H. F. Zhang, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 34, 2961 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Protoc. 2, 797 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Sci. Rep.4, 6525 (2014).

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and S. Jiao, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0305021 (2012).

Zhou, Q.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011101 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and S. Jiao, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0305021 (2012).

Lasers Light Ophthalmol. (1)

A. Vogel and R. Birngruber, Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 5, 9 (1992).

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 3, 503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Protoc. 2, 797 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

S. L. Jacques, “Melanosome absorption coefficient,” http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/melanin/mua.html .

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Sci. Rep.4, 6525 (2014).

L. V. Wang and H.-I. Wu, Biomedical Optics: Principles and Imaging (Wiley, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental system of a fiber-based OC-PAM. L1, L2, lens; PC, polarization controller; UT, ultrasonic transducer; M1, M2, mirror; C1, C2, collimator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Performance of the OCT mode. (a) The measured spectrum of the light source. (b) The calculated PSF of the OCT subsystem.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simultaneously acquired OCT and PAM images of a rat eye. (a) OCT fundus images generated from the acquired 3D OCT dataset. (b) The maximum-amplitude projection (MAP) of the PA dataset. Bar: 200 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simultaneously acquired OCT and PAM B-scan images. The red arrow indicates retinal blood vessel. Bar: 100 μm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of the histologic image (a) with the OCT cross-sectional image (b) of rat retina. Bar: 100 μm.

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