Abstract

We report a study of gradient index (GRIN) lenses as a miniaturized micro-objective for in vivo imaging in the context of the development of a nonlinear endomicroscope. A numerical study of the parameters influencing the lateral resolution, excitation, and collection efficiency, when GRIN lens is coupled with a double clad fiber (DCF), is exposed. Four commercial DCFs, previously identified from the literature as potential endoscopic fibers, are simulated. Then, an experimental study characterizes two GRIN lenses (one commercial, one homemade) by their dispersion and nonlinear effects, potential intrinsic fluorescence, and use for fluorescence lifetime measurements. Images of neural cells from brain tissues of mice through a GRIN lens are presented.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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C. Lefort, H. Hamzeh, F. Louradour, F. Pain, and D. Abi Haidar, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 076005 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Lefort, M. Kalashyan, G. Ducourthial, T. Mansuryan, R. O’Connor, and F. Louradour, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 2317 (2014).
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M. Salaün, F. Roussel, G. Bourg-Heckly, C. Vever-Bizet, S. Dominique, A. Genevois, V. Jounieaux, G. Zalcman, E. Bergot, J. M. Vergnon, and L. Thiberville, J. EurRes. 42, 1646 (2013).

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[Crossref]

R. P. Barretto and M. J. Schnitzer, Cold Spring Harb. Protoc. 2012, 1029 (2012).
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Z. Youbo, H. Nakamura, and R. J. Gordon, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 1159 (2010).

P. V. Butte, O. Fang, J. A. Jo, W. H. Yong, B. K. Pikul, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 027008 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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M. Salaün, F. Roussel, G. Bourg-Heckly, C. Vever-Bizet, S. Dominique, A. Genevois, V. Jounieaux, G. Zalcman, E. Bergot, J. M. Vergnon, and L. Thiberville, J. EurRes. 42, 1646 (2013).

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Genevois, A.

M. Salaün, F. Roussel, G. Bourg-Heckly, C. Vever-Bizet, S. Dominique, A. Genevois, V. Jounieaux, G. Zalcman, E. Bergot, J. M. Vergnon, and L. Thiberville, J. EurRes. 42, 1646 (2013).

Gordon, R. J.

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C. Lefort, H. Hamzeh, F. Louradour, F. Pain, and D. Abi Haidar, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 076005 (2014).
[Crossref]

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P. V. Butte, O. Fang, J. A. Jo, W. H. Yong, B. K. Pikul, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 027008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jounieaux, V.

M. Salaün, F. Roussel, G. Bourg-Heckly, C. Vever-Bizet, S. Dominique, A. Genevois, V. Jounieaux, G. Zalcman, E. Bergot, J. M. Vergnon, and L. Thiberville, J. EurRes. 42, 1646 (2013).

Jung, K.

J. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Protocols 7, 1456 (2012).
[Crossref]

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K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 398 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kalashyan, M.

Kaplan, A.

Khurgin, J.

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J. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Protocols 7, 1456 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, P.

J. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Protocols 7, 1456 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

J. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Protocols 7, 1456 (2012).
[Crossref]

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K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 398 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, W. M.

J. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Protocols 7, 1456 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lefort, C.

Louradour, F.

Mansuryan, T.

Marcu, L.

P. V. Butte, O. Fang, J. A. Jo, W. H. Yong, B. K. Pikul, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 027008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, H.

O’Connor, R.

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C. Lefort, H. Hamzeh, F. Louradour, F. Pain, and D. Abi Haidar, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 076005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pikul, B. K.

P. V. Butte, O. Fang, J. A. Jo, W. H. Yong, B. K. Pikul, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 027008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Riemann, I.

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 398 (2007).
[Crossref]

Roussel, F.

M. Salaün, F. Roussel, G. Bourg-Heckly, C. Vever-Bizet, S. Dominique, A. Genevois, V. Jounieaux, G. Zalcman, E. Bergot, J. M. Vergnon, and L. Thiberville, J. EurRes. 42, 1646 (2013).

Salaün, M.

M. Salaün, F. Roussel, G. Bourg-Heckly, C. Vever-Bizet, S. Dominique, A. Genevois, V. Jounieaux, G. Zalcman, E. Bergot, J. M. Vergnon, and L. Thiberville, J. EurRes. 42, 1646 (2013).

Schenkl, S.

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 398 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schnitzer, M. J.

R. P. Barretto and M. J. Schnitzer, Cold Spring Harb. Protoc. 2012, 1029 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shkolnikov, P.

Stern, M.

Thiberville, L.

M. Salaün, F. Roussel, G. Bourg-Heckly, C. Vever-Bizet, S. Dominique, A. Genevois, V. Jounieaux, G. Zalcman, E. Bergot, J. M. Vergnon, and L. Thiberville, J. EurRes. 42, 1646 (2013).

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M. Salaün, F. Roussel, G. Bourg-Heckly, C. Vever-Bizet, S. Dominique, A. Genevois, V. Jounieaux, G. Zalcman, E. Bergot, J. M. Vergnon, and L. Thiberville, J. EurRes. 42, 1646 (2013).

Vever-Bizet, C.

M. Salaün, F. Roussel, G. Bourg-Heckly, C. Vever-Bizet, S. Dominique, A. Genevois, V. Jounieaux, G. Zalcman, E. Bergot, J. M. Vergnon, and L. Thiberville, J. EurRes. 42, 1646 (2013).

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P. V. Butte, O. Fang, J. A. Jo, W. H. Yong, B. K. Pikul, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 027008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Youbo, Z.

Yun, S. H.

J. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Protocols 7, 1456 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zalcman, G.

M. Salaün, F. Roussel, G. Bourg-Heckly, C. Vever-Bizet, S. Dominique, A. Genevois, V. Jounieaux, G. Zalcman, E. Bergot, J. M. Vergnon, and L. Thiberville, J. EurRes. 42, 1646 (2013).

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Cold Spring Harb. Protoc. (1)

R. P. Barretto and M. J. Schnitzer, Cold Spring Harb. Protoc. 2012, 1029 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

C. Lefort, H. Hamzeh, F. Louradour, F. Pain, and D. Abi Haidar, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 076005 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. V. Butte, O. Fang, J. A. Jo, W. H. Yong, B. K. Pikul, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 027008 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. EurRes. (1)

M. Salaün, F. Roussel, G. Bourg-Heckly, C. Vever-Bizet, S. Dominique, A. Genevois, V. Jounieaux, G. Zalcman, E. Bergot, J. M. Vergnon, and L. Thiberville, J. EurRes. 42, 1646 (2013).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 398 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Protocols (1)

J. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, Nat. Protocols 7, 1456 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Variation of object WD of GRIN #1 as a function of the image WD at 800 nm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Relative focal position for wavelengths between 405 and 800 nm at the output of the GRIN #1. (b) Ray plots for excitation light at 800 nm and the collection nonlinear signal at 405 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Enhancement factor of the collection efficiency with varying the distance between the DCF tip and GRIN #1 lens (image WD). Collection efficiency for (a) WD=0μm, (b) WD=50μm, and (c) WD=100μm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) An experimental setup. FI, Faraday isolator; λ/2, half-wave plate. (b) and (c) Evolution of the pulse duration, (+) without GRIN lens, (X) with GRIN lens. (b) GRIN #1. (c) GRIN #2. (d) Wavelength tenability. (e) Spectral characterization.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Microscopy images by GRIN #2. Scale bar: 50 μm. (a) and (b) autofluorescence from the glue around the GRIN #1. (c) Beads of 0.1 μm of diameter. (d) and (e) neurons of mice. (f) Lateral resolution obtained by GRIN #2.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Commercial DCFs Specificationsa

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