Abstract

Results are presented toward realizing a true single-mode fiber whose Brillouin frequency shift is independent of temperature, while its dependence on strain is comparable to conventional high–silica-content single-mode fibers. Demonstrated here is a fiber with a negative thermal sensitivity dν/dT of 0.26MHz/K and a strain sensitivity of +406MHz/%. The suppression of the Brillouin thermal response is enabled by the large thermal expansion coefficient of the group I oxide-containing silica glass network.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Mass density and the Brillouin spectroscopy of aluminosilicate optical fibers

P. Dragic, J. Ballato, A. Ballato, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P.-C. Law, S. Ghosh, and M.C. Paul
Opt. Mater. Express 2(11) 1641-1654 (2012)

Brillouin scattering properties of lanthano–aluminosilicate optical fiber

P. D. Dragic, C. Kucera, J. Ballato, D. Litzkendorf, J. Dellith, and K. Schuster
Appl. Opt. 53(25) 5660-5671 (2014)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. X. Bao, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Lett. 19, 141 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. X. Sun, J. Li, D. T. Burgess, M. Hines, and B. Zhu, Proc. SPIE 9098, 90980W (2014).
  3. C. C. Lee, P. W. Chiang, and S. Chi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1094 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. Zou, Z. He, M. Kishi, and K. Hotate, Opt. Lett. 32, 600 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, Opt. Express 17, 1248 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Ballato and P. Dragic, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96, 2675 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Dragic, C. Kucera, J. Ballato, D. Litzkendorf, J. Dellith, and K. Schuster, Appl. Opt. 53, 5660 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Dragic, S. Martin, A. Ballato, and J. Ballato, “On the anomalously strong dependence of the acoustic velocity of alumina on temperature in aluminosilicate glass optical fibers–part I: material modeling and experimental validation,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (to be published).
  9. H. F. Shermer, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 57, 2698 (1956).
  10. A. Yablon, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 360 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. D. Yablon and J. Jasapara, Proc. SPIE 8601, 86011V (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 053110 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. P.-C. Law, A. Croteau, and P. Dragic, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 391 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1842 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  15. P. D. Dragic, Proc. SPIE 7316, 731607 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Schroeder, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 40, 549 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. Dovesi, C. Roetti, C. Freyria-Fava, M. Prencipe, and V. R. Saunders, Chem. Phys. 156, 11 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  18. P. Dragic, IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (IEEE, 2010), p. 151.
  19. P. Dragic, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, and J. Ballato, Nat. Photonics 6, 627 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).
  21. A. Major, F. Yoshino, I. Nikolakakos, J. S. Aitchison, and P. W. E. Smith, Opt. Lett. 29, 602 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. N. Azarenkov, G. B. Al’tshuler, N. R. Belashenkov, and S. A. Kozlov, Quantum Electron. 23, 633 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Grehn, T. Seuthe, W.-J. Tsai, M. Höfner, A. W. Achtstein, A. Mermillod-Blondin, M. Eberstein, H. J. Eichler, and J. Bonse, Opt. Mater. Express 3, 2132 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

X. Sun, J. Li, D. T. Burgess, M. Hines, and B. Zhu, Proc. SPIE 9098, 90980W (2014).

P. Dragic, C. Kucera, J. Ballato, D. Litzkendorf, J. Dellith, and K. Schuster, Appl. Opt. 53, 5660 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

P. Dragic, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, and J. Ballato, Nat. Photonics 6, 627 (2012).
[Crossref]

P.-C. Law, A. Croteau, and P. Dragic, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 391 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, Opt. Express 17, 1248 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 053110 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. D. Dragic, Proc. SPIE 7316, 731607 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

C. C. Lee, P. W. Chiang, and S. Chi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1094 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1842 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

A. N. Azarenkov, G. B. Al’tshuler, N. R. Belashenkov, and S. A. Kozlov, Quantum Electron. 23, 633 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. Dovesi, C. Roetti, C. Freyria-Fava, M. Prencipe, and V. R. Saunders, Chem. Phys. 156, 11 (1991).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

J. Schroeder, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 40, 549 (1980).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

H. F. Shermer, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 57, 2698 (1956).

Achtstein, A. W.

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).

Aitchison, J. S.

Al’tshuler, G. B.

A. N. Azarenkov, G. B. Al’tshuler, N. R. Belashenkov, and S. A. Kozlov, Quantum Electron. 23, 633 (1993).
[Crossref]

Azarenkov, A. N.

A. N. Azarenkov, G. B. Al’tshuler, N. R. Belashenkov, and S. A. Kozlov, Quantum Electron. 23, 633 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ballato, A.

P. Dragic, S. Martin, A. Ballato, and J. Ballato, “On the anomalously strong dependence of the acoustic velocity of alumina on temperature in aluminosilicate glass optical fibers–part I: material modeling and experimental validation,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (to be published).

Ballato, J.

P. Dragic, C. Kucera, J. Ballato, D. Litzkendorf, J. Dellith, and K. Schuster, Appl. Opt. 53, 5660 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato and P. Dragic, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96, 2675 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dragic, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, and J. Ballato, Nat. Photonics 6, 627 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 053110 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Dragic, S. Martin, A. Ballato, and J. Ballato, “On the anomalously strong dependence of the acoustic velocity of alumina on temperature in aluminosilicate glass optical fibers–part I: material modeling and experimental validation,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (to be published).

Bao, X.

Belashenkov, N. R.

A. N. Azarenkov, G. B. Al’tshuler, N. R. Belashenkov, and S. A. Kozlov, Quantum Electron. 23, 633 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bonse, J.

Burgess, D. T.

X. Sun, J. Li, D. T. Burgess, M. Hines, and B. Zhu, Proc. SPIE 9098, 90980W (2014).

Chi, S.

C. C. Lee, P. W. Chiang, and S. Chi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1094 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chiang, P. W.

C. C. Lee, P. W. Chiang, and S. Chi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1094 (2001).
[Crossref]

Croteau, A.

Daw, M.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 053110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dellith, J.

Dovesi, R.

R. Dovesi, C. Roetti, C. Freyria-Fava, M. Prencipe, and V. R. Saunders, Chem. Phys. 156, 11 (1991).
[Crossref]

Dragic, P.

P. Dragic, C. Kucera, J. Ballato, D. Litzkendorf, J. Dellith, and K. Schuster, Appl. Opt. 53, 5660 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato and P. Dragic, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96, 2675 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Dragic, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, and J. Ballato, Nat. Photonics 6, 627 (2012).
[Crossref]

P.-C. Law, A. Croteau, and P. Dragic, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 391 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Dragic, S. Martin, A. Ballato, and J. Ballato, “On the anomalously strong dependence of the acoustic velocity of alumina on temperature in aluminosilicate glass optical fibers–part I: material modeling and experimental validation,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (to be published).

P. Dragic, IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (IEEE, 2010), p. 151.

Dragic, P. D.

P. D. Dragic, Proc. SPIE 7316, 731607 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dubinskii, M.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 053110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eberstein, M.

Eichler, H. J.

Foy, P.

P. Dragic, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, and J. Ballato, Nat. Photonics 6, 627 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 053110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Freyria-Fava, C.

R. Dovesi, C. Roetti, C. Freyria-Fava, M. Prencipe, and V. R. Saunders, Chem. Phys. 156, 11 (1991).
[Crossref]

Grehn, M.

Hawkins, T.

P. Dragic, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, and J. Ballato, Nat. Photonics 6, 627 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 053110 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, Z.

Hines, M.

X. Sun, J. Li, D. T. Burgess, M. Hines, and B. Zhu, Proc. SPIE 9098, 90980W (2014).

Höfner, M.

Hotate, K.

Jackson, D. A.

Jasapara, J.

A. D. Yablon and J. Jasapara, Proc. SPIE 8601, 86011V (2013).
[Crossref]

Kishi, M.

Kokuoz, B.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 053110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kozlov, S. A.

A. N. Azarenkov, G. B. Al’tshuler, N. R. Belashenkov, and S. A. Kozlov, Quantum Electron. 23, 633 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kucera, C.

Law, P.-C.

Lee, C. C.

C. C. Lee, P. W. Chiang, and S. Chi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1094 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

X. Sun, J. Li, D. T. Burgess, M. Hines, and B. Zhu, Proc. SPIE 9098, 90980W (2014).

Litzkendorf, D.

Major, A.

Martin, S.

P. Dragic, S. Martin, A. Ballato, and J. Ballato, “On the anomalously strong dependence of the acoustic velocity of alumina on temperature in aluminosilicate glass optical fibers–part I: material modeling and experimental validation,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (to be published).

Matthewson, M. J.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 053110 (2009).
[Crossref]

McMillen, C.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 053110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

Morris, S.

P. Dragic, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, and J. Ballato, Nat. Photonics 6, 627 (2012).
[Crossref]

Niklès, M.

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1842 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nikolakakos, I.

Prencipe, M.

R. Dovesi, C. Roetti, C. Freyria-Fava, M. Prencipe, and V. R. Saunders, Chem. Phys. 156, 11 (1991).
[Crossref]

Robert, P.

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1842 (1997).
[Crossref]

Roetti, C.

R. Dovesi, C. Roetti, C. Freyria-Fava, M. Prencipe, and V. R. Saunders, Chem. Phys. 156, 11 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sanamyan, T.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 053110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Saunders, V. R.

R. Dovesi, C. Roetti, C. Freyria-Fava, M. Prencipe, and V. R. Saunders, Chem. Phys. 156, 11 (1991).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, J.

J. Schroeder, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 40, 549 (1980).
[Crossref]

Schuster, K.

Seuthe, T.

Shermer, H. F.

H. F. Shermer, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 57, 2698 (1956).

Smith, P. W. E.

Stolen, R.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 053110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Su, Z.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 053110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

X. Sun, J. Li, D. T. Burgess, M. Hines, and B. Zhu, Proc. SPIE 9098, 90980W (2014).

Thévenaz, L.

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1842 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tritt, T. M.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 053110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsai, W.-J.

Webb, D. J.

Yablon, A.

Yablon, A. D.

A. D. Yablon and J. Jasapara, Proc. SPIE 8601, 86011V (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoshino, F.

Zhang, J.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 053110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, B.

X. Sun, J. Li, D. T. Burgess, M. Hines, and B. Zhu, Proc. SPIE 9098, 90980W (2014).

Zou, W.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Phys. (1)

R. Dovesi, C. Roetti, C. Freyria-Fava, M. Prencipe, and V. R. Saunders, Chem. Phys. 156, 11 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. C. Lee, P. W. Chiang, and S. Chi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1094 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

J. Ballato and P. Dragic, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96, 2675 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 053110 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1842 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Yablon, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 360 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

J. Schroeder, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 40, 549 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (1)

H. F. Shermer, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 57, 2698 (1956).

Nat. Photonics (1)

P. Dragic, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, and J. Ballato, Nat. Photonics 6, 627 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (3)

A. D. Yablon and J. Jasapara, Proc. SPIE 8601, 86011V (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Sun, J. Li, D. T. Burgess, M. Hines, and B. Zhu, Proc. SPIE 9098, 90980W (2014).

P. D. Dragic, Proc. SPIE 7316, 731607 (2009).
[Crossref]

Quantum Electron. (1)

A. N. Azarenkov, G. B. Al’tshuler, N. R. Belashenkov, and S. A. Kozlov, Quantum Electron. 23, 633 (1993).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).

P. Dragic, IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (IEEE, 2010), p. 151.

P. Dragic, S. Martin, A. Ballato, and J. Ballato, “On the anomalously strong dependence of the acoustic velocity of alumina on temperature in aluminosilicate glass optical fibers–part I: material modeling and experimental validation,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. SIMS image of the fiber core. Relative lithium counts are on the vertical density scale on the right-hand side.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Refractive index profile of the fiber, measured at 950 and 1550 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Comparison of the core optical path delay (m) at 950 and 1550 nm for the prototype fiber. The results suggest that the RIP at 1550 nm is 98.6% of that at 950 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Brillouin gain spectrum shown at two temperatures (labeled in the graph). The dashed lines are Lorentzian fits to the data. The Brillouin frequency decreases with increasing temperature. An end image of the cleaved fiber is provided in the inset.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Brillouin frequency versus applied strain (stretch).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of Optical Fiber Properties a

Tables Icon

Table 2. Summary of Some Relevant Physical Characteristics of Lithia a

Metrics