Abstract

We demonstrate broadband frequency comb generation in the mid-infrared (MIR) from 2.3 to 3.5 μm in a Si3N4 microresonator. We engineer the dispersion of the structure in the MIR using a Sellmeier equation we derive from experimental measurements performed on Si3N4 films from the UV to the IR. We use deposition–anneal cycling to decrease absorption losses due to vibrational transitions in the MIR and achieve a Q-factor of 1.0×106. To our knowledge, this is the highest Q reported in this wavelength range for any on-chip resonator.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (4)

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, F. Di Teodoro, P. M. Belden, W. T. Lotshaw, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 40, 3468 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Lin and Y. K. Chembo, Opt. Express 23, 1594 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 38, 3478 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Luke, A. Dutt, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 21, 22829 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2009 (2)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, New J. Phys. 8, 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1973 (1)

H. R. Philipp, J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 295 (1973).
[Crossref]

Adler, F.

Bååk, T.

Bauters, J. F.

Belden, P. M.

Borselli, M.

Bowers, J. E.

Cardenas, J.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chembo, Y. K.

Cossel, K. C.

Del’Haye, P.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Di Teodoro, F.

Diddams, S. A.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dutt, A.

Fain, R.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fermann, M. E.

Fischer, D.

Gaeta, A. L.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 38, 3478 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gagliardi, G.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, New J. Phys. 8, 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gondarenko, A.

Griffith, A. G.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guelachvili, G.

Guo, X.

Hänsch, T. W.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hartl, I.

Heck, M. J. R.

Herr, T.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hofer, J.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.-W.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Javerzac-Galy, C.

C. Lecaplain, C. Javerzac-Galy, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum cascade laser Kerr frequency comb,” arXiv: 1506.00626 (2015).

Johnson, T. J.

Jost, J. D.

C. Lecaplain, C. Javerzac-Galy, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum cascade laser Kerr frequency comb,” arXiv: 1506.00626 (2015).

Jung, H.

Kippenberg, T. J.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Lecaplain, C. Javerzac-Galy, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum cascade laser Kerr frequency comb,” arXiv: 1506.00626 (2015).

Kwong, D.-L.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lamont, M. R. E.

Lau, R. K. W.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lecaplain, C.

C. Lecaplain, C. Javerzac-Galy, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum cascade laser Kerr frequency comb,” arXiv: 1506.00626 (2015).

Lee, Y. H. D.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Levy, J. S.

Liang, W.

Lin, G.

Lipson, M.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Luke, A. Dutt, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 21, 22829 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gondarenko, J. S. Levy, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 17, 11366 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lotshaw, W. T.

Lucas, E.

C. Lecaplain, C. Javerzac-Galy, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum cascade laser Kerr frequency comb,” arXiv: 1506.00626 (2015).

Luke, K.

Maddaloni, P.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, New J. Phys. 8, 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Malara, P.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, New J. Phys. 8, 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Maleki, L.

Mandon, J.

Matsko, A.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[Crossref]

McMillan, J. F.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mohanty, A.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Natale, P. D.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, New J. Phys. 8, 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Okawachi, Y.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 38, 3478 (2013).
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

Phare, C. T.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Philipp, H. R.

H. R. Philipp, J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 295 (1973).
[Crossref]

Picqué, N.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Sorokin, I. T. Sorokina, J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picqué, Opt. Express 15, 16540 (2007).
[Crossref]

Poitras, C. B.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Luke, A. Dutt, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 21, 22829 (2013).
[Crossref]

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schliesser, A.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seidel, D.

Sorokin, E.

Sorokina, I. T.

Spencer, D. T.

Stoll, R.

Tang, H. X.

Thorpe, M. J.

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Y.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wong, C. W.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

Yu, M.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

H. R. Philipp, J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 295 (1973).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Commun. 4, 1345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, Nat. Photonics 6, 440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, New J. Phys. 8, 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optica (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 053901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, Science 332, 555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

C. Lecaplain, C. Javerzac-Galy, E. Lucas, J. D. Jost, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Quantum cascade laser Kerr frequency comb,” arXiv: 1506.00626 (2015).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Refractive index n and extinction coefficient k for the wavelength range 1.4–32 μm. Extrapolation from NIR Sellmeier equations (blue) shows no influence from the MIR absorption peak, as expected. However, the measured absorption peak near 10 μm (red) strongly influences the measured refractive index (green), and the fitted Sellmeier equation (dotted green) agrees well with the measurement in the spectral range between 1.4 and 4 μm (see inset). As shown in the inset, at shorter wavelengths, even as far as the telecom wavelength range, the refractive index is significantly influenced by the MIR absorption peak.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic of the deposition–anneal cycling process. After the thermal oxide undercladding and trenches are formed, we deposit silicon nitride via LPCVD and then anneal at 1200°C. We deposit another silicon nitride layer, anneal, and then deposit the final layer. The final layer is annealed before cladding the devices. (b) Scanning electron microscope image of fabricated ring resonator of radius 230 μm and gap of 860 nm. We implement an adiabatic coupling region as in [20] to minimize excitation of higher order modes. (c) Schematic of resonator cross section of 950 nm tall by 2.7 μm wide.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Resonance spectrum measured around λ 0 = 2.6 μm for devices fabricated with single anneal during Si 3 N 4 film deposition but without post-fabrication annealing (blue), with post-fabrication annealing (green) and multiple annealing (red) during Si 3 N 4 film deposition. For devices with cross section 910 nm tall by 2.4 μm wide, the Q improves from Q = 55,000 with single anneal during deposition (blue) to Q = 200,000 after a long post-fabrication anneal for 13 h at 1100°C (green). The resonance extinction increases as expected, since reduction in losses transitions the resonance from the undercoupled to critically coupled regime. With multiple annealing during film deposition (red, inset) of devices with cross sections 950 nm tall by 2.7 μm wide (the devices used for comb generation in this work), the Q improves to Q = 1,000,000 .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Experimentally generated frequency comb spanning 2.3 to 3.5 μm. The different noise floors are due to optical filtering necessary to overcome the limited dynamic range of the FTIR. Inset shows the dispersive wave beginning to form, as predicted by simulations in (b).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n SiN 2 = 1 + 3.0249 λ 2 λ 2 135.3406 2 + 40314 λ 2 λ 2 1239842 2 .
Δ λ th n g / λ 0 Δ n ( d n / d T ) eff 1 Δ T κ th L Δ P abs .
Δ P d = ( 1 T min ) Δ P in .
η abs = Δ P abs Δ P d = κ th L n g Δ λ th λ 0 ( d n d T ) eff ( 1 T min ) Δ P in .

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