Abstract

We propose a point measurement technique for simultaneous gas temperature and velocity measurement based on thermographic phosphor particles dispersed in the fluid. The flow velocity is determined from the frequency of light scattered by BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ phosphor particles traversing the fringes like in conventional laser Doppler velocimetry. Flow temperatures are derived using a two-color ratio method applied to the phosphorescence from the same particles. This combined diagnostic technique is demonstrated with a temperature precision of 4%–10% in a heated air jet during steady operation for flow temperatures up to 624 K. The technique provides correlated vector-scalar data at high spatial and temporal resolution.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Rathakrishnan, Applied Gas Dynamics (Wiley, 2010), p. 512.
  2. H. E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques, 1st ed. (Springer, 2002).
  3. Y. Yeh and H. Z. Cummins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 176 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Van Maaren and L. P. H. de Goey, Comb. Sci. Tech. 99, 105 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. Z. Zhang, LDA Application Methods (Springer, 2010), p. 45.
  6. E. Ergin and M. Ö. Semih, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2038 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. W. Dibble, V. Hartmann, and R. W. Schefer, Exp. Fluids 5, 103 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. J. Tummers, E. H. van Veen, N. George, R. Rodink, and K. Hanjalic, Exp. Fluids 37, 364 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Melling, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1406 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. Fond, C. Abram, A. L. Heyes, A. M. Kempf, and F. Beyrau, Opt. Express 20, 22118 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Omrane, P. Petersson, M. Alden, and M. A. Linne, Appl. Phys. B 92, 99 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. J. Neal, J. Jordan, and D. Rothamer, SAE Int. J. Engines 6, 300 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. Abram, B. Fond, A. L. Heyes, and F. Beyrau, Appl. Phys. B 111, 155 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. Fond, C. Abram, and F. Beyrau, Appl. Phys. B 118, 393 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. G. Blasse, Phys. Stat. Sol. B 55, K131 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. Särner, M. Richter, and M. Alden, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 125304 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. B. Fond, C. Abram, and F. Beyrau, “Characterisation of the luminescence properties of BAM:Eu particles as a tracer for thermographic particle image velocimetry,” Appl. Phys. B, submitted for publication.
  18. R. Turos-Matysiak, M. Grinberg, J. W. Wang, W. M. Yen, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Lumin. 122–123, 107 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Pfadler, F. Dinkelacker, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, Combust. Flame 156, 1552 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. Hamamatsu Photonics, Photomultiplier Tubes: Basics and Applications, 3rd ed. (2007).
  21. C. Abram, B. Fond, and F. Beyrau, Opt. Express 23, 19453 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

B. Fond, C. Abram, and F. Beyrau, Appl. Phys. B 118, 393 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Abram, B. Fond, and F. Beyrau, Opt. Express 23, 19453 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

N. J. Neal, J. Jordan, and D. Rothamer, SAE Int. J. Engines 6, 300 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Abram, B. Fond, A. L. Heyes, and F. Beyrau, Appl. Phys. B 111, 155 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2009 (1)

S. Pfadler, F. Dinkelacker, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, Combust. Flame 156, 1552 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

G. Särner, M. Richter, and M. Alden, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 125304 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Omrane, P. Petersson, M. Alden, and M. A. Linne, Appl. Phys. B 92, 99 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. Turos-Matysiak, M. Grinberg, J. W. Wang, W. M. Yen, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Lumin. 122–123, 107 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

E. Ergin and M. Ö. Semih, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2038 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. J. Tummers, E. H. van Veen, N. George, R. Rodink, and K. Hanjalic, Exp. Fluids 37, 364 (2004).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Melling, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1406 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. Van Maaren and L. P. H. de Goey, Comb. Sci. Tech. 99, 105 (1994).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. W. Dibble, V. Hartmann, and R. W. Schefer, Exp. Fluids 5, 103 (1987).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

G. Blasse, Phys. Stat. Sol. B 55, K131 (1973).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

Y. Yeh and H. Z. Cummins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 176 (1964).
[Crossref]

Abram, C.

B. Fond, C. Abram, and F. Beyrau, Appl. Phys. B 118, 393 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Abram, B. Fond, and F. Beyrau, Opt. Express 23, 19453 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Abram, B. Fond, A. L. Heyes, and F. Beyrau, Appl. Phys. B 111, 155 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Fond, C. Abram, A. L. Heyes, A. M. Kempf, and F. Beyrau, Opt. Express 20, 22118 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Fond, C. Abram, and F. Beyrau, “Characterisation of the luminescence properties of BAM:Eu particles as a tracer for thermographic particle image velocimetry,” Appl. Phys. B, submitted for publication.

Albrecht, H. E.

H. E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques, 1st ed. (Springer, 2002).

Alden, M.

A. Omrane, P. Petersson, M. Alden, and M. A. Linne, Appl. Phys. B 92, 99 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Särner, M. Richter, and M. Alden, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 125304 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beyrau, F.

B. Fond, C. Abram, and F. Beyrau, Appl. Phys. B 118, 393 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Abram, B. Fond, and F. Beyrau, Opt. Express 23, 19453 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Abram, B. Fond, A. L. Heyes, and F. Beyrau, Appl. Phys. B 111, 155 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Fond, C. Abram, A. L. Heyes, A. M. Kempf, and F. Beyrau, Opt. Express 20, 22118 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Pfadler, F. Dinkelacker, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, Combust. Flame 156, 1552 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Fond, C. Abram, and F. Beyrau, “Characterisation of the luminescence properties of BAM:Eu particles as a tracer for thermographic particle image velocimetry,” Appl. Phys. B, submitted for publication.

Blasse, G.

G. Blasse, Phys. Stat. Sol. B 55, K131 (1973).
[Crossref]

Borys, M.

H. E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques, 1st ed. (Springer, 2002).

Cummins, H. Z.

Y. Yeh and H. Z. Cummins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 176 (1964).
[Crossref]

Damaschke, N.

H. E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques, 1st ed. (Springer, 2002).

de Goey, L. P. H.

A. Van Maaren and L. P. H. de Goey, Comb. Sci. Tech. 99, 105 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dibble, R. W.

R. W. Dibble, V. Hartmann, and R. W. Schefer, Exp. Fluids 5, 103 (1987).
[Crossref]

Dinkelacker, F.

S. Pfadler, F. Dinkelacker, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, Combust. Flame 156, 1552 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ergin, E.

E. Ergin and M. Ö. Semih, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2038 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fond, B.

C. Abram, B. Fond, and F. Beyrau, Opt. Express 23, 19453 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Fond, C. Abram, and F. Beyrau, Appl. Phys. B 118, 393 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Abram, B. Fond, A. L. Heyes, and F. Beyrau, Appl. Phys. B 111, 155 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Fond, C. Abram, A. L. Heyes, A. M. Kempf, and F. Beyrau, Opt. Express 20, 22118 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Fond, C. Abram, and F. Beyrau, “Characterisation of the luminescence properties of BAM:Eu particles as a tracer for thermographic particle image velocimetry,” Appl. Phys. B, submitted for publication.

George, N.

M. J. Tummers, E. H. van Veen, N. George, R. Rodink, and K. Hanjalic, Exp. Fluids 37, 364 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grinberg, M.

R. Turos-Matysiak, M. Grinberg, J. W. Wang, W. M. Yen, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Lumin. 122–123, 107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hanjalic, K.

M. J. Tummers, E. H. van Veen, N. George, R. Rodink, and K. Hanjalic, Exp. Fluids 37, 364 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, V.

R. W. Dibble, V. Hartmann, and R. W. Schefer, Exp. Fluids 5, 103 (1987).
[Crossref]

Heyes, A. L.

C. Abram, B. Fond, A. L. Heyes, and F. Beyrau, Appl. Phys. B 111, 155 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Fond, C. Abram, A. L. Heyes, A. M. Kempf, and F. Beyrau, Opt. Express 20, 22118 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jordan, J.

N. J. Neal, J. Jordan, and D. Rothamer, SAE Int. J. Engines 6, 300 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kempf, A. M.

Leipertz, A.

S. Pfadler, F. Dinkelacker, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, Combust. Flame 156, 1552 (2009).
[Crossref]

Linne, M. A.

A. Omrane, P. Petersson, M. Alden, and M. A. Linne, Appl. Phys. B 92, 99 (2008).
[Crossref]

Melling, A.

A. Melling, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1406 (1997).
[Crossref]

Meltzer, R. S.

R. Turos-Matysiak, M. Grinberg, J. W. Wang, W. M. Yen, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Lumin. 122–123, 107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Neal, N. J.

N. J. Neal, J. Jordan, and D. Rothamer, SAE Int. J. Engines 6, 300 (2013).
[Crossref]

Omrane, A.

A. Omrane, P. Petersson, M. Alden, and M. A. Linne, Appl. Phys. B 92, 99 (2008).
[Crossref]

Petersson, P.

A. Omrane, P. Petersson, M. Alden, and M. A. Linne, Appl. Phys. B 92, 99 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pfadler, S.

S. Pfadler, F. Dinkelacker, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, Combust. Flame 156, 1552 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rathakrishnan, E.

E. Rathakrishnan, Applied Gas Dynamics (Wiley, 2010), p. 512.

Richter, M.

G. Särner, M. Richter, and M. Alden, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 125304 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rodink, R.

M. J. Tummers, E. H. van Veen, N. George, R. Rodink, and K. Hanjalic, Exp. Fluids 37, 364 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rothamer, D.

N. J. Neal, J. Jordan, and D. Rothamer, SAE Int. J. Engines 6, 300 (2013).
[Crossref]

Särner, G.

G. Särner, M. Richter, and M. Alden, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 125304 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schefer, R. W.

R. W. Dibble, V. Hartmann, and R. W. Schefer, Exp. Fluids 5, 103 (1987).
[Crossref]

Semih, M. Ö.

E. Ergin and M. Ö. Semih, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2038 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tropea, C.

H. E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques, 1st ed. (Springer, 2002).

Tummers, M. J.

M. J. Tummers, E. H. van Veen, N. George, R. Rodink, and K. Hanjalic, Exp. Fluids 37, 364 (2004).
[Crossref]

Turos-Matysiak, R.

R. Turos-Matysiak, M. Grinberg, J. W. Wang, W. M. Yen, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Lumin. 122–123, 107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Van Maaren, A.

A. Van Maaren and L. P. H. de Goey, Comb. Sci. Tech. 99, 105 (1994).
[Crossref]

van Veen, E. H.

M. J. Tummers, E. H. van Veen, N. George, R. Rodink, and K. Hanjalic, Exp. Fluids 37, 364 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. W.

R. Turos-Matysiak, M. Grinberg, J. W. Wang, W. M. Yen, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Lumin. 122–123, 107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yeh, Y.

Y. Yeh and H. Z. Cummins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 176 (1964).
[Crossref]

Yen, W. M.

R. Turos-Matysiak, M. Grinberg, J. W. Wang, W. M. Yen, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Lumin. 122–123, 107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, LDA Application Methods (Springer, 2010), p. 45.

Appl. Phys. B (3)

A. Omrane, P. Petersson, M. Alden, and M. A. Linne, Appl. Phys. B 92, 99 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Abram, B. Fond, A. L. Heyes, and F. Beyrau, Appl. Phys. B 111, 155 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Fond, C. Abram, and F. Beyrau, Appl. Phys. B 118, 393 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Yeh and H. Z. Cummins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 176 (1964).
[Crossref]

Comb. Sci. Tech. (1)

A. Van Maaren and L. P. H. de Goey, Comb. Sci. Tech. 99, 105 (1994).
[Crossref]

Combust. Flame (1)

S. Pfadler, F. Dinkelacker, F. Beyrau, and A. Leipertz, Combust. Flame 156, 1552 (2009).
[Crossref]

Exp. Fluids (2)

R. W. Dibble, V. Hartmann, and R. W. Schefer, Exp. Fluids 5, 103 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. J. Tummers, E. H. van Veen, N. George, R. Rodink, and K. Hanjalic, Exp. Fluids 37, 364 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

R. Turos-Matysiak, M. Grinberg, J. W. Wang, W. M. Yen, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Lumin. 122–123, 107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

E. Ergin and M. Ö. Semih, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2038 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Särner, M. Richter, and M. Alden, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 125304 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Melling, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1406 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Stat. Sol. B (1)

G. Blasse, Phys. Stat. Sol. B 55, K131 (1973).
[Crossref]

SAE Int. J. Engines (1)

N. J. Neal, J. Jordan, and D. Rothamer, SAE Int. J. Engines 6, 300 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

Z. Zhang, LDA Application Methods (Springer, 2010), p. 45.

E. Rathakrishnan, Applied Gas Dynamics (Wiley, 2010), p. 512.

H. E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques, 1st ed. (Springer, 2002).

B. Fond, C. Abram, and F. Beyrau, “Characterisation of the luminescence properties of BAM:Eu particles as a tracer for thermographic particle image velocimetry,” Appl. Phys. B, submitted for publication.

Hamamatsu Photonics, Photomultiplier Tubes: Basics and Applications, 3rd ed. (2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Normalized emission spectra of BAM:Eu with superimposed transmission profiles of the two filter combinations.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup for simultaneous measurements. LPF1: 500 nm, LPF2: 400 nm, LPF3: 445 nm, BP1: 514–10 nm, BP2: 425–50 nm, BP3: 466–40 nm, FL1, 2, and 3: focal length = 50 mm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Signal from a BAM:Eu particle simultaneously producing a Mie-scattering (Doppler) and phosphorescence bursts.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Calibrated ratio as a function of gas temperature.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. PDFs for correlated measurements of gas temperature.

Equations (3)

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I LDV = I A e 2 ( t / t b ) 2 ( 1 + ( m · cos ( 2 π f t ) ) ) ,
I 466 nm = I B e 2 ( t / t b ) 2 ,
I 425 nm = R · I B e 2 ( t / t b ) 2 ,

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