Abstract

In analogy to wire-grid polarizers for linear polarization, metal-helix metamaterials can act as broadband circular polarizers. This concept has brought circular-polarization capabilities to mid-infrared and terahertz frequencies, which were previously difficult to access. Due to the lack of rotational symmetry, however, single-helix metamaterials exhibit unwanted circular-polarization conversions. Recent theoretical work showed that conversions can be fully eliminated by intertwining N=3 or 4 helices within each unit cell. While direct laser writing in positive-tone photo-resist yielded good results for single-helix metamaterials operating at mid-infrared frequencies, the axial resolution is insufficient for N-helix metamaterials. Here, we use stimulated emission depletion-inspired three-dimensional laser lithography to fabricate such microstructures. We measure all entries of the Jones transmission and reflection matrices and show experimentally that polarization conversions are minimized, in good agreement with theory.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (2)

J. Zhao, S. Jaber, P. Mulvaney, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 680 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Esposito, V. Tasco, F. Todisco, M. Cuscunà, A. Benedetti, D. Sanvitto, and A. Passaseo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6484 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

J. Kaschke, M. Blome, S. Burger, and M. Wegener, Opt. Express 22, 19936 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Schäferling, X. Yin, N. Engheta, and H. Giessen, ACS Photonics 1, 530 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Choi and M. Cho, J. Phys. Chem. B 118, 12837 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

V. K. Valev, J. J. Baumberg, C. Sibilia, and T. Verbiest, Adv. Mater. 25, 2517 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. G. Mark, J. G. Gibbs, T.-C. Lee, and P. Fischer, Nat. Mater. 12, 802 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Thiel, J. Ott, A. Radke, J. Kaschke, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 38, 4252 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

J. K. Gansel, M. Latzel, A. Frölich, J. Kaschke, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yang, P. Zhang, P. Xie, L. Wu, Z. Lu, and M. Zhao, Front. Optoelectron. 5, 248 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Kaschke, J. K. Gansel, and M. Wegener, Opt. Express 20, 26012 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, M. Schäferling, T. Weiss, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 12, 2542 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Kuzyk, R. Schreiber, Z. Fan, G. Pardatscher, E.-M. Roller, A. Högele, F. C. Simmel, A. O. Govorov, and T. Liedl, Nature 483, 311 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

B. Ranjbar and P. Gill, Chem. Biol. Drug Des. 74, 101 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

R. D. Singh and T. A. Keiderling, Biopolymers 20, 237 (1981).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

S. Beychok, Science 154, 1288 (1966).
[Crossref]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, Adv. Opt. Mater. (2015), doi: 10.1002/adom.201500194.
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J. J.

V. K. Valev, J. J. Baumberg, C. Sibilia, and T. Verbiest, Adv. Mater. 25, 2517 (2013).
[Crossref]

Benedetti, A.

M. Esposito, V. Tasco, F. Todisco, M. Cuscunà, A. Benedetti, D. Sanvitto, and A. Passaseo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6484 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beychok, S.

S. Beychok, Science 154, 1288 (1966).
[Crossref]

Blome, M.

Blume, L.

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, Adv. Opt. Mater. (2015), doi: 10.1002/adom.201500194.
[Crossref]

Braun, P. V.

J. Zhao, S. Jaber, P. Mulvaney, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 680 (2015).
[Crossref]

Burger, S.

Cho, M.

J.-H. Choi and M. Cho, J. Phys. Chem. B 118, 12837 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.-H.

J.-H. Choi and M. Cho, J. Phys. Chem. B 118, 12837 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cuscunà, M.

M. Esposito, V. Tasco, F. Todisco, M. Cuscunà, A. Benedetti, D. Sanvitto, and A. Passaseo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6484 (2015).
[Crossref]

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Engheta, N.

M. Schäferling, X. Yin, N. Engheta, and H. Giessen, ACS Photonics 1, 530 (2014).
[Crossref]

Esposito, M.

M. Esposito, V. Tasco, F. Todisco, M. Cuscunà, A. Benedetti, D. Sanvitto, and A. Passaseo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6484 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, Z.

A. Kuzyk, R. Schreiber, Z. Fan, G. Pardatscher, E.-M. Roller, A. Högele, F. C. Simmel, A. O. Govorov, and T. Liedl, Nature 483, 311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fischer, J.

Fischer, P.

A. G. Mark, J. G. Gibbs, T.-C. Lee, and P. Fischer, Nat. Mater. 12, 802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Frölich, A.

J. K. Gansel, M. Latzel, A. Frölich, J. Kaschke, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Latzel, A. Frölich, J. Kaschke, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101109 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Kaschke, J. K. Gansel, and M. Wegener, Opt. Express 20, 26012 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Wegener, S. Burger, and S. Linden, Opt. Express 18, 1059 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gibbs, J. G.

A. G. Mark, J. G. Gibbs, T.-C. Lee, and P. Fischer, Nat. Mater. 12, 802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

J. Zhao, S. Jaber, P. Mulvaney, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 680 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Schäferling, X. Yin, N. Engheta, and H. Giessen, ACS Photonics 1, 530 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, M. Schäferling, T. Weiss, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 12, 2542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gill, P.

B. Ranjbar and P. Gill, Chem. Biol. Drug Des. 74, 101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Govorov, A. O.

A. Kuzyk, R. Schreiber, Z. Fan, G. Pardatscher, E.-M. Roller, A. Högele, F. C. Simmel, A. O. Govorov, and T. Liedl, Nature 483, 311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, M. Schäferling, T. Weiss, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 12, 2542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Högele, A.

A. Kuzyk, R. Schreiber, Z. Fan, G. Pardatscher, E.-M. Roller, A. Högele, F. C. Simmel, A. O. Govorov, and T. Liedl, Nature 483, 311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jaber, S.

J. Zhao, S. Jaber, P. Mulvaney, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 680 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kaschke, J.

J. Kaschke, M. Blome, S. Burger, and M. Wegener, Opt. Express 22, 19936 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Thiel, J. Ott, A. Radke, J. Kaschke, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 38, 4252 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Kaschke, J. K. Gansel, and M. Wegener, Opt. Express 20, 26012 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Latzel, A. Frölich, J. Kaschke, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101109 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, Adv. Opt. Mater. (2015), doi: 10.1002/adom.201500194.
[Crossref]

Keiderling, T. A.

R. D. Singh and T. A. Keiderling, Biopolymers 20, 237 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kuzyk, A.

A. Kuzyk, R. Schreiber, Z. Fan, G. Pardatscher, E.-M. Roller, A. Högele, F. C. Simmel, A. O. Govorov, and T. Liedl, Nature 483, 311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Latzel, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Latzel, A. Frölich, J. Kaschke, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, T.-C.

A. G. Mark, J. G. Gibbs, T.-C. Lee, and P. Fischer, Nat. Mater. 12, 802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liedl, T.

A. Kuzyk, R. Schreiber, Z. Fan, G. Pardatscher, E.-M. Roller, A. Högele, F. C. Simmel, A. O. Govorov, and T. Liedl, Nature 483, 311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Linden, S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Wegener, S. Burger, and S. Linden, Opt. Express 18, 1059 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, N.

M. Hentschel, M. Schäferling, T. Weiss, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 12, 2542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, P. X.

Lu, Z.

Z. Yang, P. Zhang, P. Xie, L. Wu, Z. Lu, and M. Zhao, Front. Optoelectron. 5, 248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mark, A. G.

A. G. Mark, J. G. Gibbs, T.-C. Lee, and P. Fischer, Nat. Mater. 12, 802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mulvaney, P.

J. Zhao, S. Jaber, P. Mulvaney, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 680 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ott, J.

Pardatscher, G.

A. Kuzyk, R. Schreiber, Z. Fan, G. Pardatscher, E.-M. Roller, A. Högele, F. C. Simmel, A. O. Govorov, and T. Liedl, Nature 483, 311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Passaseo, A.

M. Esposito, V. Tasco, F. Todisco, M. Cuscunà, A. Benedetti, D. Sanvitto, and A. Passaseo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6484 (2015).
[Crossref]

Radke, A.

Ranjbar, B.

B. Ranjbar and P. Gill, Chem. Biol. Drug Des. 74, 101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Roller, E.-M.

A. Kuzyk, R. Schreiber, Z. Fan, G. Pardatscher, E.-M. Roller, A. Högele, F. C. Simmel, A. O. Govorov, and T. Liedl, Nature 483, 311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sanvitto, D.

M. Esposito, V. Tasco, F. Todisco, M. Cuscunà, A. Benedetti, D. Sanvitto, and A. Passaseo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6484 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schäferling, M.

M. Schäferling, X. Yin, N. Engheta, and H. Giessen, ACS Photonics 1, 530 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, M. Schäferling, T. Weiss, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 12, 2542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schreiber, R.

A. Kuzyk, R. Schreiber, Z. Fan, G. Pardatscher, E.-M. Roller, A. Högele, F. C. Simmel, A. O. Govorov, and T. Liedl, Nature 483, 311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sibilia, C.

V. K. Valev, J. J. Baumberg, C. Sibilia, and T. Verbiest, Adv. Mater. 25, 2517 (2013).
[Crossref]

Simmel, F. C.

A. Kuzyk, R. Schreiber, Z. Fan, G. Pardatscher, E.-M. Roller, A. Högele, F. C. Simmel, A. O. Govorov, and T. Liedl, Nature 483, 311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Singh, R. D.

R. D. Singh and T. A. Keiderling, Biopolymers 20, 237 (1981).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, Nat. Photonics 5, 523 (2011).

Tasco, V.

M. Esposito, V. Tasco, F. Todisco, M. Cuscunà, A. Benedetti, D. Sanvitto, and A. Passaseo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6484 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thiel, M.

M. Thiel, J. Ott, A. Radke, J. Kaschke, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 38, 4252 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Latzel, A. Frölich, J. Kaschke, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101109 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, Adv. Opt. Mater. (2015), doi: 10.1002/adom.201500194.
[Crossref]

Todisco, F.

M. Esposito, V. Tasco, F. Todisco, M. Cuscunà, A. Benedetti, D. Sanvitto, and A. Passaseo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6484 (2015).
[Crossref]

Valev, V. K.

V. K. Valev, J. J. Baumberg, C. Sibilia, and T. Verbiest, Adv. Mater. 25, 2517 (2013).
[Crossref]

Verbiest, T.

V. K. Valev, J. J. Baumberg, C. Sibilia, and T. Verbiest, Adv. Mater. 25, 2517 (2013).
[Crossref]

von Freymann, G.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wegener, M.

J. Kaschke, M. Blome, S. Burger, and M. Wegener, Opt. Express 22, 19936 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Thiel, J. Ott, A. Radke, J. Kaschke, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 38, 4252 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Kaschke, J. K. Gansel, and M. Wegener, Opt. Express 20, 26012 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Latzel, A. Frölich, J. Kaschke, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101109 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, Nat. Photonics 5, 523 (2011).

J. Fischer and M. Wegener, Opt. Mater. Express 1, 614 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Wegener, S. Burger, and S. Linden, Opt. Express 18, 1059 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, Adv. Opt. Mater. (2015), doi: 10.1002/adom.201500194.
[Crossref]

Weiss, T.

M. Hentschel, M. Schäferling, T. Weiss, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 12, 2542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, L.

Z. Yang, P. Zhang, P. Xie, L. Wu, Z. Lu, and M. Zhao, Front. Optoelectron. 5, 248 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, Adv. Opt. Mater. (2015), doi: 10.1002/adom.201500194.
[Crossref]

Xie, P.

Z. Yang, P. Zhang, P. Xie, L. Wu, Z. Lu, and M. Zhao, Front. Optoelectron. 5, 248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

Z. Yang, P. Zhang, P. Xie, L. Wu, Z. Lu, and M. Zhao, Front. Optoelectron. 5, 248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yang, M. Zhao, and P. X. Lu, Opt. Express 19, 4255 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, Adv. Opt. Mater. (2015), doi: 10.1002/adom.201500194.
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

M. Schäferling, X. Yin, N. Engheta, and H. Giessen, ACS Photonics 1, 530 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

Z. Yang, P. Zhang, P. Xie, L. Wu, Z. Lu, and M. Zhao, Front. Optoelectron. 5, 248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, S. Jaber, P. Mulvaney, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 680 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

Z. Yang, P. Zhang, P. Xie, L. Wu, Z. Lu, and M. Zhao, Front. Optoelectron. 5, 248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yang, M. Zhao, and P. X. Lu, Opt. Express 19, 4255 (2011).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

M. Schäferling, X. Yin, N. Engheta, and H. Giessen, ACS Photonics 1, 530 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

V. K. Valev, J. J. Baumberg, C. Sibilia, and T. Verbiest, Adv. Mater. 25, 2517 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

J. Zhao, S. Jaber, P. Mulvaney, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 680 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. K. Gansel, M. Latzel, A. Frölich, J. Kaschke, M. Thiel, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Biopolymers (1)

R. D. Singh and T. A. Keiderling, Biopolymers 20, 237 (1981).
[Crossref]

Chem. Biol. Drug Des. (1)

B. Ranjbar and P. Gill, Chem. Biol. Drug Des. 74, 101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Front. Optoelectron. (1)

Z. Yang, P. Zhang, P. Xie, L. Wu, Z. Lu, and M. Zhao, Front. Optoelectron. 5, 248 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J.-H. Choi and M. Cho, J. Phys. Chem. B 118, 12837 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Hentschel, M. Schäferling, T. Weiss, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, Nano Lett. 12, 2542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

M. Esposito, V. Tasco, F. Todisco, M. Cuscunà, A. Benedetti, D. Sanvitto, and A. Passaseo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6484 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. G. Mark, J. G. Gibbs, T.-C. Lee, and P. Fischer, Nat. Mater. 12, 802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, Nat. Photonics 5, 523 (2011).

Nature (1)

A. Kuzyk, R. Schreiber, Z. Fan, G. Pardatscher, E.-M. Roller, A. Högele, F. C. Simmel, A. O. Govorov, and T. Liedl, Nature 483, 311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

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[Crossref]

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J. Kaschke, L. Blume, L. Wu, M. Thiel, K. Bade, Z. Yang, and M. Wegener, Adv. Opt. Mater. (2015), doi: 10.1002/adom.201500194.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Our fabrication process is depicted schematically in (a)–(c). (a) First, a hollow polymer cast is made by STED-inspired direct laser writing. (b) The voids of the polymer template are filled with gold, using electro-chemical deposition. (c) Finally, the polymer template is removed in an oxygen plasma. (d) and (e) show scanning electron micrographs of the polymer cast and the final gold structures, respectively. (f) For comparison, arrays of single helices have been fabricated on the same substrate and employing the same fabrication process. (g) Scanning electron micrograph of single helices as previously fabricated by conventional direct laser writing in a positive-tone resist [7]. Scale bars in (d)–(g) are identical.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Numerically calculated spectra for a metamaterial with N = 3 and 2 axial pitches. The polarization-conserving transmittances and the polarization conversions are depicted by solid and dashed lines, respectively. The incoming circular polarization is color-coded. As expected, the circular polarization conversions are strictly zero. Over a large bandwidth from below 20 to 75 THz, strong circular dichroism is found.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Calculated (see Fig. 2) and measured spectra of the Jones transmission matrix for N = 3 helix metamaterials. Polarizations are color-coded as in Fig. 2. In the bottom right panel, the measured crossed polarizations of the bare ITO substrate are depicted as a gray dashed line, indicating measurement artifacts due to polarization errors of the employed characterization optics. (b) Spectra as in (a), but for an array of single helices ( N = 1 ).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reflection spectra in analogy to Fig. 3, again for (a)  N = 3 and (b)  N = 1 . Note that the ordinary reflectances are R R L and R L R , while the conversions are denoted by R L L and R R R , as the orientation of the wave vector is flipped upon reflection. The small wiggles in the top-right panel are due to Fabry–Perot reflections in the glass substrate.

Equations (1)

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r = ( r R L 0 0 r L R ) and t = ( t L L 0 0 t R R ) ,

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