Abstract

We demonstrated feasibility of super-resolution imaging through high-index microspheres embedded in transparent elastomers. We performed imaging, with resolution improvement by a factor of two, by using implanted barium titanate glass microspheres (diameters 30150μm and refractive index 1.92.1) in a thin film of polydimethylsiloxane elastomer placed over the specimen. Microsphere-assisted imaging technique is a promising candidate for applications in cancer research. As a proof-of-principle, we used microsphere-assisted imaging technique for the observation of radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci formation in U87 human glioblastoma cells irradiated by clinical proton beams.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (2)

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 018003 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, N. I. Limberopoulos, J. S. Derov, D. E. Walker, and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061117 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (4)

D. McCloskey, J. J. Wang, and J. F. Donegan, Opt. Express 20, 128 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061123 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 068004 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, G. F. Walsh, L. Dal Negro, and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141128 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

S. W. Hell, Science 316, 1153 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2000 (2)

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[Crossref]

1927 (1)

W. V. Houston, Phys. Rev. 29, 478 (1927).
[Crossref]

Allen, K. W.

Antoszyk, A. N.

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 018003 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 068004 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, N. M. Fried, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, and V. N. Astratov, Opt. Express 19, 3440 (2011).
[Crossref]

Astratov, V. N.

A. Darafsheh, N. I. Limberopoulos, J. S. Derov, D. E. Walker, and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061117 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 018003 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, N. Mojaverian, N. I. Limberopoulos, K. W. Allen, A. Lupu, and V. N. Astratov, Opt. Lett. 38, 4208 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061123 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, G. F. Walsh, L. Dal Negro, and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141128 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 068004 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, N. M. Fried, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, and V. N. Astratov, Opt. Express 19, 3440 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, Y. Li, and V. N. Astratov, in IEEE Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks—ICTON’13, Cartagena, Spain, June23–27, 2013, paper Tu.P.38.

A. Darafsheh, M. A. Fiddy, and V. N. Astratov, in IEEE Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks—ICTON’12, Coventry, England, July2–5, 2012, paper Tu.A6.5.

Backman, V.

Bonod, N.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2003).

Chen, Z.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, paper# 218 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, Opt. Express 13, 526 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, Opt. Express 12, 1214 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dal Negro, L.

A. Darafsheh, G. F. Walsh, L. Dal Negro, and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141128 (2012).
[Crossref]

Darafsheh, A.

A. Darafsheh, N. I. Limberopoulos, J. S. Derov, D. E. Walker, and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061117 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 018003 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, N. Mojaverian, N. I. Limberopoulos, K. W. Allen, A. Lupu, and V. N. Astratov, Opt. Lett. 38, 4208 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, G. F. Walsh, L. Dal Negro, and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141128 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061123 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 068004 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, N. M. Fried, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, and V. N. Astratov, Opt. Express 19, 3440 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, Y. Li, and V. N. Astratov, in IEEE Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks—ICTON’13, Cartagena, Spain, June23–27, 2013, paper Tu.P.38.

A. Darafsheh, M. A. Fiddy, and V. N. Astratov, in IEEE Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks—ICTON’12, Coventry, England, July2–5, 2012, paper Tu.A6.5.

A. Darafsheh, “Optical super-resolution and periodical focusing effects by dielectric miscrospheres,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 2013).

Deckert, V.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[Crossref]

Derov, J. S.

A. Darafsheh, N. I. Limberopoulos, J. S. Derov, D. E. Walker, and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Devilez, A.

Donegan, J. F.

Engheta, N.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).

Fardad, A.

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 018003 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 068004 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, N. M. Fried, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, and V. N. Astratov, Opt. Express 19, 3440 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ferrand, P.

Fiddy, M. A.

A. Darafsheh, M. A. Fiddy, and V. N. Astratov, in IEEE Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks—ICTON’12, Coventry, England, July2–5, 2012, paper Tu.A6.5.

Fried, N. M.

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 018003 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 068004 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, N. M. Fried, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, and V. N. Astratov, Opt. Express 19, 3440 (2011).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (Roberts & Company, 2005).

Guo, W.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, paper# 218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hao, X.

X. Hao, C. Kuang, X. Liu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 203102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Haq, M. T.

Hayashi, T.

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hell, S. W.

S. W. Hell, Science 316, 1153 (2007).
[Crossref]

Herzig, H. P.

Hong, M.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, paper# 218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Houston, W. V.

W. V. Houston, Phys. Rev. 29, 478 (1927).
[Crossref]

Hutchens, T. C.

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 018003 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 068004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, N.

Jouravlev, M. V.

Khan, A.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, paper# 218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. S.

Kim, M. S.

Kuang, C.

X. Hao, C. Kuang, X. Liu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 203102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, paper# 218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Li, Y.

X. Hao, C. Kuang, X. Liu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 203102 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, Y. Li, and V. N. Astratov, in IEEE Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks—ICTON’13, Cartagena, Spain, June23–27, 2013, paper Tu.P.38.

Limberopoulos, N. I.

A. Darafsheh, N. I. Limberopoulos, J. S. Derov, D. E. Walker, and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061117 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, N. Mojaverian, N. I. Limberopoulos, K. W. Allen, A. Lupu, and V. N. Astratov, Opt. Lett. 38, 4208 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Hao, C. Kuang, X. Liu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 203102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, paper# 218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, paper# 218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lupu, A.

Martin, O. J. F.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mason, D. R.

McCloskey, D.

Mitsui, T.

Mojaverian, N.

Nakagawa, W.

Oikawa, H.

Onodera, T.

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pianta, M.

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[Crossref]

Popov, E.

Rigneault, H.

Salandrino, A.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).

Scharf, T.

Sick, B.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stout, B.

Sugimoto, Y.

Taflove, A.

Takamasu, T.

Wakayama, Y.

Walker, D. E.

A. Darafsheh, N. I. Limberopoulos, J. S. Derov, D. E. Walker, and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Walsh, G. F.

A. Darafsheh, G. F. Walsh, L. Dal Negro, and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141128 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. J.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, paper# 218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wenger, J.

Wild, U. P.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2003).

Ying, H. S.

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 018003 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 068004 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, N. M. Fried, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, and V. N. Astratov, Opt. Express 19, 3440 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zenobi, R.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

X. Hao, C. Kuang, X. Liu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 203102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Darafsheh and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061123 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Hao, C. Kuang, X. Liu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 203102 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, G. F. Walsh, L. Dal Negro, and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141128 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, N. I. Limberopoulos, J. S. Derov, D. E. Walker, and V. N. Astratov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061117 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 018003 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. C. Hutchens, A. Darafsheh, A. Fardad, A. N. Antoszyk, H. S. Ying, V. N. Astratov, and N. M. Fried, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 068004 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, Nat. Commun. 2, paper# 218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. V. Houston, Phys. Rev. 29, 478 (1927).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S. W. Hell, Science 316, 1153 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2003).

A. Darafsheh, “Optical super-resolution and periodical focusing effects by dielectric miscrospheres,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 2013).

A. Darafsheh, M. A. Fiddy, and V. N. Astratov, in IEEE Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks—ICTON’12, Coventry, England, July2–5, 2012, paper Tu.A6.5.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (Roberts & Company, 2005).

A. Darafsheh, Y. Li, and V. N. Astratov, in IEEE Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks—ICTON’13, Cartagena, Spain, June23–27, 2013, paper Tu.P.38.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the microsphere-assisted imaging setup in which a microsphere embedded in a PDMS film is shown (not to scale). (b) Ray tracing of virtual image formation by the sphere. The structure of the BD, consisting of 200-nm stripes separated by 100-nm gaps, is resolved by using the microsphere-embedded film through a (c) D65μm (n1.9) and (d) D55μm (n2.1) sphere. Conventional microscopy cannot resolve the BD structure.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a)–(c) Intensity profiles of the structure of the BD with 200-nm steps separated by a 100-nm gap (four periods are shown). (d)–(f) PSFs with 300, 200, and 150-nm FWHM, respectively. (g)–(i) Calculated image profiles obtained by convolving (a)–(c) with PSFs presented in cases (d)–(f), respectively. Insets show the calculated images.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Deconvolution fit on the experimental image profile of the BD sample through a D50μm BTG sphere (n2.1) embedded in PDMS corresponding to a PSF with 135-nm FWHM, (b) Experimental values of lateral magnification and super-resolution FOV as a function of diameter for BTG spheres (n1.9) embedded in PDMS.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. FL image of U87 glioblastoma cells through 20× (NA=0.4) objective lens under excitation at 365 nm with filtering out 440 nm for imaging (a) without using a microsphere and (b) with using a 130-μm-diameter BTG sphere immersed in PDMS and DAPI. FL image under excitations at 365 and 594 nm with filtering out 440 and 620 nm, respectively, for imaging cell nuclei and radiation-induced foci (c) without and (d) with using microsphere. Double-strand DNA breaks, manifested as red foci, are seen through the sphere in (d). Microscope objective was focused on the virtual images formed underneath the sphere in (b) and (d).

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