Abstract

Blazed gratings with a theoretical blaze angle of 35°16′ are etched into (110) GaAs surfaces by preferential chemical etching, using a photoresist mask. A maximum total diffraction efficiency of 15% was measured at 6328 Å from a blazed grating with a 2.23-μm period, and the diffracted light was concentrated in a single order. To demonstrate the applicability of such gratings in integrated optics, gratings with periods in a 3000- to 5000-Å range were made, and epitaxial growth on (110) GaAs substrates was carried out using a method of growth that deposits high-quality, nearly defect-free layers on such substrates.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, S. Namba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. T. Peng, T. Tamir, Opt. Commun. 11, 405 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Hammer, R. A. Bartolini, A. Miller, C. C. Neil, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 192 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreyev, S. A. Gorevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, E. L. Portnoy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Zory, L. D. Comerford, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 451 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, W. Streifer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 48 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Iida, K. Ito, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 768 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. A. Van Vechten, J. M. Blum, F. R. Feigel, K. K. Shih, J. M. Woodall, 1976 Device Research Conference, Salt Lake City, paper V-5.
  9. D. Botez, W. T. Tsang, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 234 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. T. Tsang, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 44 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Botez, Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, December1977 (unpublished).
  12. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1969), p. 404.
  13. A. Sommerfeld, Optics (Academic, New York, 1964), pp. 185 and 230.
  14. D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 1295 (1976).
  15. J. J. Hsieh, J. Cryst. Growth 27, 49 (1974).
  16. N. Toyoda, M. Mihara, T. Hara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 627 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. C. Casey, M. B. Panish, W. D. Schlosser, T. L. Paoli, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 322 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

1976 (5)

J. M. Hammer, R. A. Bartolini, A. Miller, C. C. Neil, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 192 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, W. T. Tsang, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Tsang, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 44 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 1295 (1976).

T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, S. Namba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (4)

N. Toyoda, M. Mihara, T. Hara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 627 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreyev, S. A. Gorevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, E. L. Portnoy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. Zory, L. D. Comerford, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 451 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, W. Streifer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 48 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (3)

J. J. Hsieh, J. Cryst. Growth 27, 49 (1974).

H. C. Casey, M. B. Panish, W. D. Schlosser, T. L. Paoli, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Peng, T. Tamir, Opt. Commun. 11, 405 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

S. Iida, K. Ito, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 768 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Alferov, Zh. I.

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreyev, S. A. Gorevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, E. L. Portnoy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Andreyev, V. M.

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreyev, S. A. Gorevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, E. L. Portnoy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, T.

T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, S. Namba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, Y.

T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, S. Namba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bartolini, R. A.

J. M. Hammer, R. A. Bartolini, A. Miller, C. C. Neil, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 192 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Blum, J. M.

J. A. Van Vechten, J. M. Blum, F. R. Feigel, K. K. Shih, J. M. Woodall, 1976 Device Research Conference, Salt Lake City, paper V-5.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1969), p. 404.

Botez, D.

D. Botez, W. T. Tsang, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, December1977 (unpublished).

Burnham, R. D.

D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, W. Streifer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 48 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Casey, H. C.

H. C. Casey, M. B. Panish, W. D. Schlosser, T. L. Paoli, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Comerford, L. D.

P. Zory, L. D. Comerford, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 451 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Feigel, F. R.

J. A. Van Vechten, J. M. Blum, F. R. Feigel, K. K. Shih, J. M. Woodall, 1976 Device Research Conference, Salt Lake City, paper V-5.

Gorevich, S. A.

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreyev, S. A. Gorevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, E. L. Portnoy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, J. M.

J. M. Hammer, R. A. Bartolini, A. Miller, C. C. Neil, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 192 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hara, T.

N. Toyoda, M. Mihara, T. Hara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 627 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, J. J.

J. J. Hsieh, J. Cryst. Growth 27, 49 (1974).

Iida, S.

S. Iida, K. Ito, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 768 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ito, K.

S. Iida, K. Ito, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 768 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kazarinov, R. F.

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreyev, S. A. Gorevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, E. L. Portnoy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Larionov, V. R.

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreyev, S. A. Gorevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, E. L. Portnoy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 1295 (1976).

Mihara, M.

N. Toyoda, M. Mihara, T. Hara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 627 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

J. M. Hammer, R. A. Bartolini, A. Miller, C. C. Neil, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 192 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mizerov, M. N.

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreyev, S. A. Gorevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, E. L. Portnoy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Namba, S.

T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, S. Namba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Neil, C. C.

J. M. Hammer, R. A. Bartolini, A. Miller, C. C. Neil, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 192 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Panish, M. B.

H. C. Casey, M. B. Panish, W. D. Schlosser, T. L. Paoli, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Paoli, T. L.

H. C. Casey, M. B. Panish, W. D. Schlosser, T. L. Paoli, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Peng, S. T.

S. T. Peng, T. Tamir, Opt. Commun. 11, 405 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Portnoy, E. L.

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreyev, S. A. Gorevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, E. L. Portnoy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Schlosser, W. D.

H. C. Casey, M. B. Panish, W. D. Schlosser, T. L. Paoli, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Scifres, D. R.

D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, W. Streifer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 48 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shih, K. K.

J. A. Van Vechten, J. M. Blum, F. R. Feigel, K. K. Shih, J. M. Woodall, 1976 Device Research Conference, Salt Lake City, paper V-5.

Sommerfeld, A.

A. Sommerfeld, Optics (Academic, New York, 1964), pp. 185 and 230.

Streifer, W.

D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, W. Streifer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 48 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

S. T. Peng, T. Tamir, Opt. Commun. 11, 405 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, N.

N. Toyoda, M. Mihara, T. Hara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 627 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, W. T.

D. Botez, W. T. Tsang, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Tsang, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 44 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Van Vechten, J. A.

J. A. Van Vechten, J. M. Blum, F. R. Feigel, K. K. Shih, J. M. Woodall, 1976 Device Research Conference, Salt Lake City, paper V-5.

Wang, S.

W. T. Tsang, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 44 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, W. T. Tsang, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1969), p. 404.

Woodall, J. M.

J. A. Van Vechten, J. M. Blum, F. R. Feigel, K. K. Shih, J. M. Woodall, 1976 Device Research Conference, Salt Lake City, paper V-5.

Zory, P.

P. Zory, L. D. Comerford, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 451 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, S. Namba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hammer, R. A. Bartolini, A. Miller, C. C. Neil, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 192 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, W. T. Tsang, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Tsang, S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 44 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, W. Streifer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 48 (1975).
[CrossRef]

N. Toyoda, M. Mihara, T. Hara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 627 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 1295 (1976).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreyev, S. A. Gorevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, E. L. Portnoy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. Zory, L. D. Comerford, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 451 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. C. Casey, M. B. Panish, W. D. Schlosser, T. L. Paoli, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

J. J. Hsieh, J. Cryst. Growth 27, 49 (1974).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

S. Iida, K. Ito, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 768 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. T. Peng, T. Tamir, Opt. Commun. 11, 405 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

D. Botez, Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, December1977 (unpublished).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1969), p. 404.

A. Sommerfeld, Optics (Academic, New York, 1964), pp. 185 and 230.

J. A. Van Vechten, J. M. Blum, F. R. Feigel, K. K. Shih, J. M. Woodall, 1976 Device Research Conference, Salt Lake City, paper V-5.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Various crystalline directions and planes defining the asymmetric profile of channels etched in (110) GaAs. Blaze angle, θ = 35°16′. (b) Diagram defining various angles in a diffraction experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM photograph of the etched blazed grating with a period of 5150 Å.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photomicrographs showing the top surface of a GaAs–Ga0.8Al0.2 As structure grown on a (110) GaAs buffer layer: (a) using the meltback process and (b) using our usual procedure of growth by a supercooling technique.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( α ) I ( α 0 ) = R F 1 F 2 = R [ sin ( β / 2 ) β / 2 ] 2 [ sin ( N γ / 2 ) sin ( γ / 2 ) ] 2 ,
sin α - sin α 0 = m λ / d ,
β = k [ sin ( α - θ ) - sin ( θ + α 0 ) ] d / cos θ ,

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