Abstract

We report on the observation of cw backward-wave generation using degenerate four-wave mixing in a nonresonant medium. The interaction took place inside a 3-m-long CS2-filled 4-μm i.d. optical fiber With a pump power of only 6 mW inside the fiber, a backward-wave conversion efficiency of 0.45% has been observed, which is in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. W. Hellwarth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1 (1977); A. Yariv, D. M. Pepper, Opt. Lett. 1, 16 (1977); R. L. Abrams, R. C. Lind, Opt. Lett. 2, 94 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. M. Bloom, G. C. Bjorklund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592 (1977); S. L. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appi. Phys. Lett. 32, 166 (1978); D. M. Pepper, D. Fekete, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 41 (1978). J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herrian, Appl. Opt. 17, 2671 (1978); J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herrian, T. Valentin, Appl. Opt. 16, 2796 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. M. Pepper, R. L. Abrams, Opt. Lett. 3, 212 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Yariv, Opt. Commun. 25, 23 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. M. Pepper, J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 3, 7 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. M. Bloom, P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, Opt. Lett. 2, 58 (1978); P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, Opt. Lett. 3, 4 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Yariv, J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, D. M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 635 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 100 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. P. Ippen, in Laser Application to Optics and Spectroscopy, S. F. Jacobs, M. O. Scully, M. Sargent, eds. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1975), p. 213.
  11. R. K. Jain, C. Lin, R. H. Stolen, A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 89 (1977); R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, R. K. Jain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 340 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. L. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 404 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. Moran, C. Y. She, R. L. Carman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 259 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. G. Smith, Appl. Opt. 11, 2489 (1972); J. AuYeung, A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 347 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. W. Hellwarth, Progressin Quantum Electronics, Vol. 5 (Pergamon, New York, 1977).

1978 (7)

1977 (3)

R. W. Hellwarth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1 (1977); A. Yariv, D. M. Pepper, Opt. Lett. 1, 16 (1977); R. L. Abrams, R. C. Lind, Opt. Lett. 2, 94 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Bloom, G. C. Bjorklund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592 (1977); S. L. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appi. Phys. Lett. 32, 166 (1978); D. M. Pepper, D. Fekete, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 41 (1978). J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herrian, Appl. Opt. 17, 2671 (1978); J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herrian, T. Valentin, Appl. Opt. 16, 2796 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Jain, C. Lin, R. H. Stolen, A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 89 (1977); R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, R. K. Jain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 340 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

M. J. Moran, C. Y. She, R. L. Carman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 259 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 100 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

Abrams, R. L.

Ashkin, A.

R. K. Jain, C. Lin, R. H. Stolen, A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 89 (1977); R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, R. K. Jain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 340 (1977).
[CrossRef]

AuYeung, J.

D. M. Pepper, J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 3, 7 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yariv, J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, D. M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 635 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

D. M. Bloom, G. C. Bjorklund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592 (1977); S. L. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appi. Phys. Lett. 32, 166 (1978); D. M. Pepper, D. Fekete, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 41 (1978). J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herrian, Appl. Opt. 17, 2671 (1978); J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herrian, T. Valentin, Appl. Opt. 16, 2796 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloom, D. M.

D. M. Bloom, P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, Opt. Lett. 2, 58 (1978); P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, Opt. Lett. 3, 4 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Bloom, G. C. Bjorklund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592 (1977); S. L. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appi. Phys. Lett. 32, 166 (1978); D. M. Pepper, D. Fekete, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 41 (1978). J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herrian, Appl. Opt. 17, 2671 (1978); J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herrian, T. Valentin, Appl. Opt. 16, 2796 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carman, R. L.

M. J. Moran, C. Y. She, R. L. Carman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 259 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Economou, N. P.

Fekete, D.

A. Yariv, J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, D. M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 635 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Pepper, J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 3, 7 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellwarth, R. W.

S. L. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 404 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Hellwarth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1 (1977); A. Yariv, D. M. Pepper, Opt. Lett. 1, 16 (1977); R. L. Abrams, R. C. Lind, Opt. Lett. 2, 94 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Hellwarth, Progressin Quantum Electronics, Vol. 5 (Pergamon, New York, 1977).

Ippen, E. P.

E. P. Ippen, in Laser Application to Optics and Spectroscopy, S. F. Jacobs, M. O. Scully, M. Sargent, eds. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1975), p. 213.

Jain, R. K.

R. K. Jain, C. Lin, R. H. Stolen, A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 89 (1977); R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, R. K. Jain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 340 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, S. L.

S. L. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 404 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Liao, P. F.

Lin, C.

R. K. Jain, C. Lin, R. H. Stolen, A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 89 (1977); R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, R. K. Jain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 340 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Moran, M. J.

M. J. Moran, C. Y. She, R. L. Carman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 259 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, D. M.

She, C. Y.

M. J. Moran, C. Y. She, R. L. Carman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 259 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. G.

Stolen, R. H.

R. K. Jain, C. Lin, R. H. Stolen, A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 89 (1977); R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, R. K. Jain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 340 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 100 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

D. M. Pepper, J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 3, 7 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yariv, Opt. Commun. 25, 23 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, D. M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 635 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. K. Jain, C. Lin, R. H. Stolen, A. Ashkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 89 (1977); R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, R. K. Jain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 340 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 404 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Bloom, G. C. Bjorklund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592 (1977); S. L. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appi. Phys. Lett. 32, 166 (1978); D. M. Pepper, D. Fekete, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 41 (1978). J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herrian, Appl. Opt. 17, 2671 (1978); J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herrian, T. Valentin, Appl. Opt. 16, 2796 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yariv, J. AuYeung, D. Fekete, D. M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 635 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. H. Stolen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 100 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Moran, C. Y. She, R. L. Carman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 259 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Yariv, Opt. Commun. 25, 23 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (2)

E. P. Ippen, in Laser Application to Optics and Spectroscopy, S. F. Jacobs, M. O. Scully, M. Sargent, eds. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1975), p. 213.

R. W. Hellwarth, Progressin Quantum Electronics, Vol. 5 (Pergamon, New York, 1977).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three-beam experimental arrangement. ⊗ represents a mechanical chopper.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal profile of the detected light intensity using the geometry of Fig. 1. The structure in the initial 20 μsec is caused by the detector–amplifier response.

Equations (9)

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E i = 1 2 m B m ( z ) E m ( x , y ) exp [ - 1 2 α z + i ( ω t - β m z ) ] + c . c .
E r = 1 2 l A l ( z ) E l ( x , y ) exp [ 1 2 α ( z - L ) + i ( ω t + β l z ) ] + c . c . ,
E p1 = 1 2 A p1 E 1 ( x , y ) exp [ - 1 2 α z + i ( ω t - β 1 z ) ] + c . c .
E p2 = 1 2 A p2 E 1 ( x , y ) exp [ 1 2 α ( z - L ) + i ( ω t - β 1 z ) ] + c . c . ,
d A l d z = i κ * exp ( - α z ) B l *
d B l * d z = i κ exp [ α ( z - L ) ] A l ,
κ * = 2 πω c n χ ( 3 ) A p 1 A p 2 ,
E r ( x , y , 0 ) = - 2 i κ * tan ( κ e L ) exp ( - 1 2 α L ) α tan ( κ e L ) + 2 κ e E i * ( x , y , 0 ) ,
κ e = [ κ 2 exp ( - α L ) - ( 1 2 α ) 2 ] 1 / 2 .

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