Abstract

We present the design of a metal grating coupler compatible with membrane photonic circuit platforms, consisting of a buried metal grating and a metal mirror. A nonapodized design provides a fiber-to-chip coupling efficiency at 1.55 μm up to 73%, whereas apodized designs show theoretical efficiencies as high as 89%, with a 3 dB bandwidth of 61 and 78 nm, respectively. An important advantage is that the coupling efficiency is independent from the underlying layer stack, enabling its use in diverse applications. For example, a thin buffer layer is required to achieve optical coupling for the heterogeneous integration of III–V and silicon photonics, whereas a thick buffer is of interest for thermal isolation between photonic membranes and CMOS circuits.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. W. Snyder and P. A. O’Brien, Proc. SPIE 8614, 86140D (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Hofrichter, W. M. J. Green, F. Horst, S. Assefa, M. Yang, B. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 127–129.
  3. J. Yao, X. Zheng, G. Li, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 383–385.
  4. J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, T. Sifer, Y. Hayashi, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2013), pp. 1–2.
  5. T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, IET Optoelectron. 5, 218 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, Opt. Express 18, 18278 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Opt. Lett. 34, 1408 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Kraus, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, F. V. Laere, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 15, 9625 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Lin, C.-Y. Wu, and P.-T. Lee, in Advanced Photonics Congress, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper IM4B.6.
  12. S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, T. De Vries, B. Smalbrugge, J. Bolk, M. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PAF4A.3.
  13. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids I-III (Elsevier, 1985).
  14. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Electron. Lett. 41, 561 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

B. W. Snyder and P. A. O’Brien, Proc. SPIE 8614, 86140D (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, IET Optoelectron. 5, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Electron. Lett. 41, 561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P.

Ambrosius, H.

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, IET Optoelectron. 5, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Amemiya, T.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, T. Sifer, Y. Hayashi, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2013), pp. 1–2.

Arai, S.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, T. Sifer, Y. Hayashi, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2013), pp. 1–2.

Assefa, S.

J. Hofrichter, W. M. J. Green, F. Horst, S. Assefa, M. Yang, B. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 127–129.

Atsumi, Y.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, T. Sifer, Y. Hayashi, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2013), pp. 1–2.

Ayre, M.

Baets, R.

Bogaerts, W.

Bolk, J.

S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, T. De Vries, B. Smalbrugge, J. Bolk, M. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PAF4A.3.

Bordas, F.

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, IET Optoelectron. 5, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

J. Yao, X. Zheng, G. Li, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 383–385.

De Vries, T.

S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, T. De Vries, B. Smalbrugge, J. Bolk, M. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PAF4A.3.

Duan, G.-H.

S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, T. De Vries, B. Smalbrugge, J. Bolk, M. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PAF4A.3.

Fedeli, J. M.

S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, T. De Vries, B. Smalbrugge, J. Bolk, M. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PAF4A.3.

Green, W. M. J.

J. Hofrichter, W. M. J. Green, F. Horst, S. Assefa, M. Yang, B. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 127–129.

Halir, R.

Hayashi, Y.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, T. Sifer, Y. Hayashi, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2013), pp. 1–2.

Hofrichter, J.

J. Hofrichter, W. M. J. Green, F. Horst, S. Assefa, M. Yang, B. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 127–129.

Horst, F.

J. Hofrichter, W. M. J. Green, F. Horst, S. Assefa, M. Yang, B. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 127–129.

Janz, S.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, T. Sifer, Y. Hayashi, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2013), pp. 1–2.

Karouta, F.

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, IET Optoelectron. 5, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keyvaninia, S.

S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, T. De Vries, B. Smalbrugge, J. Bolk, M. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PAF4A.3.

Kraus, T. F.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

J. Yao, X. Zheng, G. Li, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 383–385.

Laere, F. V.

Lee, P.-T.

P. Lin, C.-Y. Wu, and P.-T. Lee, in Advanced Photonics Congress, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper IM4B.6.

Lelarge, F.

S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, T. De Vries, B. Smalbrugge, J. Bolk, M. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PAF4A.3.

Lepage, G.

Li, G.

J. Yao, X. Zheng, G. Li, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 383–385.

Lin, P.

P. Lin, C.-Y. Wu, and P.-T. Lee, in Advanced Photonics Congress, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper IM4B.6.

Luo, Y.

J. Yao, X. Zheng, G. Li, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 383–385.

Messaoudene, S.

S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, T. De Vries, B. Smalbrugge, J. Bolk, M. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PAF4A.3.

Molina-Fernández, I.

Nishiyama, N.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, T. Sifer, Y. Hayashi, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2013), pp. 1–2.

O’Brien, P. A.

B. W. Snyder and P. A. O’Brien, Proc. SPIE 8614, 86140D (2013).
[CrossRef]

Offrein, B.

J. Hofrichter, W. M. J. Green, F. Horst, S. Assefa, M. Yang, B. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 127–129.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids I-III (Elsevier, 1985).

Pello, J.

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, IET Optoelectron. 5, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peng, S. T.

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Raj, K.

J. Yao, X. Zheng, G. Li, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 383–385.

Roelkens, G.

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, IET Optoelectron. 5, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, Opt. Express 18, 18278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Kraus, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Electron. Lett. 41, 561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, T. De Vries, B. Smalbrugge, J. Bolk, M. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PAF4A.3.

Scheerlinck, S.

Schrauwen, J.

Selvaraja, S.

Shubin, I.

J. Yao, X. Zheng, G. Li, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 383–385.

Sifer, T.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, T. Sifer, Y. Hayashi, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2013), pp. 1–2.

Smalbrugge, B.

S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, T. De Vries, B. Smalbrugge, J. Bolk, M. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PAF4A.3.

Smit, M.

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, IET Optoelectron. 5, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, T. De Vries, B. Smalbrugge, J. Bolk, M. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PAF4A.3.

Snyder, B. W.

B. W. Snyder and P. A. O’Brien, Proc. SPIE 8614, 86140D (2013).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

J. Yao, X. Zheng, G. Li, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 383–385.

Thijs, P.

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, IET Optoelectron. 5, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van der Tol, J.

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, IET Optoelectron. 5, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Van Laere, F.

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, Opt. Express 18, 18278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, F. V. Laere, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 15, 9625 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Kraus, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Electron. Lett. 41, 561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, T. De Vries, B. Smalbrugge, J. Bolk, M. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PAF4A.3.

Verheyen, P.

Vermeulen, D.

Verstuyft, S.

S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, T. De Vries, B. Smalbrugge, J. Bolk, M. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PAF4A.3.

Vlasov, Y.

J. Hofrichter, W. M. J. Green, F. Horst, S. Assefa, M. Yang, B. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 127–129.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Wu, C.-Y.

P. Lin, C.-Y. Wu, and P.-T. Lee, in Advanced Photonics Congress, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper IM4B.6.

Xu, D.

Yang, M.

J. Hofrichter, W. M. J. Green, F. Horst, S. Assefa, M. Yang, B. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 127–129.

Yao, J.

J. Yao, X. Zheng, G. Li, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 383–385.

Zhang, R.

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, IET Optoelectron. 5, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

J. Yao, X. Zheng, G. Li, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 383–385.

Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Electron. Lett. 41, 561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IET Optoelectron. (1)

J. van der Tol, R. Zhang, J. Pello, F. Bordas, G. Roelkens, H. Ambrosius, P. Thijs, F. Karouta, and M. Smit, IET Optoelectron. 5, 218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. W. Snyder and P. A. O’Brien, Proc. SPIE 8614, 86140D (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

J. Hofrichter, W. M. J. Green, F. Horst, S. Assefa, M. Yang, B. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 127–129.

J. Yao, X. Zheng, G. Li, I. Shubin, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2011), pp. 383–385.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, T. Sifer, Y. Hayashi, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2013), pp. 1–2.

P. Lin, C.-Y. Wu, and P.-T. Lee, in Advanced Photonics Congress, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper IM4B.6.

S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, T. De Vries, B. Smalbrugge, J. Bolk, M. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PAF4A.3.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids I-III (Elsevier, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) General schematic of the reflective metal grating coupler. (b) Main parameters of the grating.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Coupling efficiency at 1.55 μm as a function of grating depth d for different grating periods, considering ff=50%. The right axis shows the total diffraction efficiency for the case of Λ=635nm. The inset shows the modulus of the electric field distribution showing the coupling from a fiber to an IMOS waveguide at 1.55 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Coupling efficiency for both apodized and nonapodized designs, with Λ=635nm, d=125nm, and ff=50%. The filling factor of apodized designs is shown in Table 1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Tolerance of the grating coupler on the filling factor and (b) the grating depth. Unless the plot states something different, the grating parameters are: Λ=635nm, d=125nm, and ff=50%.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Apodization Schemes

Metrics