Abstract

We present measurements demonstrating simultaneous determination of velocity and temperature using a variant of the Vibrationally Excited Nitric Oxide Monitoring (VENOM) technique that does not employ NO2. The variant is based on tagging by electronic excitation of NO in the A2Σ1/2+(v=0)X2Π1/2(v=0) band and subsequent formation of vibrationally excited NO(X2Π) by spontaneous emission and collisional quenching. Sequential planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of the nascent NO(X2Π,v=1) was used to obtain spatially resolved average streamwise velocity and rotational/translational temperature. The temperature determination using this approach extends the applicability of the VENOM technique to low-density, high-speed flows, where slow thermalization of the tagged molecules represents a limiting factor.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, Opt. Lett. 36, 196 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, Appl. Opt. 51, 1216 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. M. Danehy, S. O’Byrne, A. F. P. Houwing, J. S. Fox, and D. R. Smith, AIAA J. 41, 263 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Orlemann, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Nakaya, M. Kasahara, M. Tsue, and M. Kono, Heat Transfer Asian Res. 34, 40 (2005).
  6. N. Jiang, M. Nishihara, and W. Lempert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. F. Bathel, C. T. Johansen, P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, and C. P. Goyne, in 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting (AIAA, 2011), pp. 2011–3246.
  8. A. Hsu, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, Appl. Opt. 48, 4414 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. R. Edwards, A. Dogariu, and R. B. Miles, in 51st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting (AIAA, 2013) paper 2013-0043.
  10. R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, “Advanced laser diagnostics development for the characterization of gaseous high speed flows,” Ph.D. dissertation (Texas A&M University, 2012).
  11. R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. Srinivasan, J. Hofferth, A. J. Tindall, D. Kim, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 50, 691 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Hsu, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 47, 2597 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation Program for Diatomic Molecules, Version 1.5: SRI International Report (1999).
  14. G. Hancock and M. Saunders, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 2014 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. A. B. Paci, J. Few, S. Gowrie, and G. Hancock, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 2554 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, H. Kronemayer, V. Sick, C. Schulz, and J. W. Daily, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 5328 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, and W. H. Humphries, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 104309 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, and C. D. Carter, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 204302 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. S. McDermid and J. B. Laudenslager, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 483 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. W. Thoman, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, and P. H. Paul, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8156 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. F. Nutt, S. C. Haydon, and A. I. McIntosh, Chem. Phys. Lett. 62, 402 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Ebata, Y. Anezaki, M. Fujii, N. Mikami, and M. Ito, Chem. Phys. 84, 151 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Hunter, S. A. Reid, D. C. Robie, and H. Reisler, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 1093 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

M. A. B. Paci, J. Few, S. Gowrie, and G. Hancock, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 2554 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. Srinivasan, J. Hofferth, A. J. Tindall, D. Kim, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 50, 691 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, Appl. Opt. 51, 1216 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

N. Jiang, M. Nishihara, and W. Lempert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

A. Hsu, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, Appl. Opt. 48, 4414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hsu, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 47, 2597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, and W. H. Humphries, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 104309 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, and C. D. Carter, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 204302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

G. Hancock and M. Saunders, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 2014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, H. Kronemayer, V. Sick, C. Schulz, and J. W. Daily, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 5328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Nakaya, M. Kasahara, M. Tsue, and M. Kono, Heat Transfer Asian Res. 34, 40 (2005).

2003 (1)

P. M. Danehy, S. O’Byrne, A. F. P. Houwing, J. S. Fox, and D. R. Smith, AIAA J. 41, 263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. Orlemann, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Hunter, S. A. Reid, D. C. Robie, and H. Reisler, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 1093 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. W. Thoman, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, and P. H. Paul, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8156 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

T. Ebata, Y. Anezaki, M. Fujii, N. Mikami, and M. Ito, Chem. Phys. 84, 151 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

I. S. McDermid and J. B. Laudenslager, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 483 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

G. F. Nutt, S. C. Haydon, and A. I. McIntosh, Chem. Phys. Lett. 62, 402 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Anezaki, Y.

T. Ebata, Y. Anezaki, M. Fujii, N. Mikami, and M. Ito, Chem. Phys. 84, 151 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bathel, B. F.

B. F. Bathel, C. T. Johansen, P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, and C. P. Goyne, in 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting (AIAA, 2011), pp. 2011–3246.

Bowersox, R. D. W.

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. Srinivasan, J. Hofferth, A. J. Tindall, D. Kim, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 50, 691 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, Appl. Opt. 51, 1216 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, Opt. Lett. 36, 196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Hsu, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, Appl. Opt. 48, 4414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hsu, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 47, 2597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carter, C. D.

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, and C. D. Carter, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 204302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crosley, D. R.

J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation Program for Diatomic Molecules, Version 1.5: SRI International Report (1999).

Daily, J. W.

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, H. Kronemayer, V. Sick, C. Schulz, and J. W. Daily, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 5328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danehy, P. M.

P. M. Danehy, S. O’Byrne, A. F. P. Houwing, J. S. Fox, and D. R. Smith, AIAA J. 41, 263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Bathel, C. T. Johansen, P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, and C. P. Goyne, in 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting (AIAA, 2011), pp. 2011–3246.

Dogariu, A.

M. R. Edwards, A. Dogariu, and R. B. Miles, in 51st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting (AIAA, 2013) paper 2013-0043.

Durant, J. L.

J. W. Thoman, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, and P. H. Paul, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8156 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ebata, T.

T. Ebata, Y. Anezaki, M. Fujii, N. Mikami, and M. Ito, Chem. Phys. 84, 151 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, M. R.

M. R. Edwards, A. Dogariu, and R. B. Miles, in 51st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting (AIAA, 2013) paper 2013-0043.

Few, J.

M. A. B. Paci, J. Few, S. Gowrie, and G. Hancock, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 2554 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fox, J. S.

P. M. Danehy, S. O’Byrne, A. F. P. Houwing, J. S. Fox, and D. R. Smith, AIAA J. 41, 263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

T. Ebata, Y. Anezaki, M. Fujii, N. Mikami, and M. Ito, Chem. Phys. 84, 151 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gowrie, S.

M. A. B. Paci, J. Few, S. Gowrie, and G. Hancock, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 2554 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Goyne, C. P.

B. F. Bathel, C. T. Johansen, P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, and C. P. Goyne, in 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting (AIAA, 2011), pp. 2011–3246.

Gray, J. A.

J. W. Thoman, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, and P. H. Paul, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8156 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hancock, G.

M. A. B. Paci, J. Few, S. Gowrie, and G. Hancock, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 2554 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Hancock and M. Saunders, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 2014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haydon, S. C.

G. F. Nutt, S. C. Haydon, and A. I. McIntosh, Chem. Phys. Lett. 62, 402 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hofferth, J.

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. Srinivasan, J. Hofferth, A. J. Tindall, D. Kim, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 50, 691 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Houwing, A. F. P.

P. M. Danehy, S. O’Byrne, A. F. P. Houwing, J. S. Fox, and D. R. Smith, AIAA J. 41, 263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, A.

A. Hsu, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, Appl. Opt. 48, 4414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hsu, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 47, 2597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Humphries, W. H.

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, and W. H. Humphries, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 104309 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, M.

M. Hunter, S. A. Reid, D. C. Robie, and H. Reisler, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 1093 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Inman, J. A.

B. F. Bathel, C. T. Johansen, P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, and C. P. Goyne, in 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting (AIAA, 2011), pp. 2011–3246.

Ito, M.

T. Ebata, Y. Anezaki, M. Fujii, N. Mikami, and M. Ito, Chem. Phys. 84, 151 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, N.

N. Jiang, M. Nishihara, and W. Lempert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johansen, C. T.

B. F. Bathel, C. T. Johansen, P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, and C. P. Goyne, in 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting (AIAA, 2011), pp. 2011–3246.

Jones, S. B.

B. F. Bathel, C. T. Johansen, P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, and C. P. Goyne, in 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting (AIAA, 2011), pp. 2011–3246.

Kasahara, M.

S. Nakaya, M. Kasahara, M. Tsue, and M. Kono, Heat Transfer Asian Res. 34, 40 (2005).

Kim, D.

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. Srinivasan, J. Hofferth, A. J. Tindall, D. Kim, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 50, 691 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kono, M.

S. Nakaya, M. Kasahara, M. Tsue, and M. Kono, Heat Transfer Asian Res. 34, 40 (2005).

Kronemayer, H.

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, H. Kronemayer, V. Sick, C. Schulz, and J. W. Daily, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 5328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laudenslager, J. B.

I. S. McDermid and J. B. Laudenslager, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 483 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lempert, W.

N. Jiang, M. Nishihara, and W. Lempert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luque, J.

J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation Program for Diatomic Molecules, Version 1.5: SRI International Report (1999).

McDermid, I. S.

I. S. McDermid and J. B. Laudenslager, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 483 (1982).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, A. I.

G. F. Nutt, S. C. Haydon, and A. I. McIntosh, Chem. Phys. Lett. 62, 402 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mikami, N.

T. Ebata, Y. Anezaki, M. Fujii, N. Mikami, and M. Ito, Chem. Phys. 84, 151 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. B.

M. R. Edwards, A. Dogariu, and R. B. Miles, in 51st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting (AIAA, 2013) paper 2013-0043.

Nakaya, S.

S. Nakaya, M. Kasahara, M. Tsue, and M. Kono, Heat Transfer Asian Res. 34, 40 (2005).

Nishihara, M.

N. Jiang, M. Nishihara, and W. Lempert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

North, S. W.

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, Appl. Opt. 51, 1216 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. Srinivasan, J. Hofferth, A. J. Tindall, D. Kim, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 50, 691 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, Opt. Lett. 36, 196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Hsu, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, Appl. Opt. 48, 4414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hsu, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 47, 2597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nutt, G. F.

G. F. Nutt, S. C. Haydon, and A. I. McIntosh, Chem. Phys. Lett. 62, 402 (1979).
[CrossRef]

O’Byrne, S.

P. M. Danehy, S. O’Byrne, A. F. P. Houwing, J. S. Fox, and D. R. Smith, AIAA J. 41, 263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Orlemann, C.

C. Orlemann, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paci, M. A. B.

M. A. B. Paci, J. Few, S. Gowrie, and G. Hancock, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 2554 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, B. D.

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, and W. H. Humphries, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 104309 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, and C. D. Carter, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 204302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, H. Kronemayer, V. Sick, C. Schulz, and J. W. Daily, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 5328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. H.

J. W. Thoman, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, and P. H. Paul, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8156 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Reid, S. A.

M. Hunter, S. A. Reid, D. C. Robie, and H. Reisler, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 1093 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reisler, H.

M. Hunter, S. A. Reid, D. C. Robie, and H. Reisler, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 1093 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Robie, D. C.

M. Hunter, S. A. Reid, D. C. Robie, and H. Reisler, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 1093 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Gonzalez, R.

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, Appl. Opt. 51, 1216 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. Srinivasan, J. Hofferth, A. J. Tindall, D. Kim, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 50, 691 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, Opt. Lett. 36, 196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, “Advanced laser diagnostics development for the characterization of gaseous high speed flows,” Ph.D. dissertation (Texas A&M University, 2012).

Saunders, M.

G. Hancock and M. Saunders, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 2014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, C.

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, H. Kronemayer, V. Sick, C. Schulz, and J. W. Daily, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 5328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Orlemann, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Settersten, T. B.

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, and C. D. Carter, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 204302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, and W. H. Humphries, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 104309 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, H. Kronemayer, V. Sick, C. Schulz, and J. W. Daily, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 5328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sick, V.

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, H. Kronemayer, V. Sick, C. Schulz, and J. W. Daily, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 5328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

P. M. Danehy, S. O’Byrne, A. F. P. Houwing, J. S. Fox, and D. R. Smith, AIAA J. 41, 263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, R.

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. Srinivasan, J. Hofferth, A. J. Tindall, D. Kim, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 50, 691 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, Opt. Lett. 36, 196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Hsu, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, Appl. Opt. 48, 4414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hsu, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 47, 2597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thoman, J. W.

J. W. Thoman, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, and P. H. Paul, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8156 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tindall, A. J.

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. Srinivasan, J. Hofferth, A. J. Tindall, D. Kim, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 50, 691 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsue, M.

S. Nakaya, M. Kasahara, M. Tsue, and M. Kono, Heat Transfer Asian Res. 34, 40 (2005).

Wolfrum, J.

C. Orlemann, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (3)

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, R. Srinivasan, J. Hofferth, A. J. Tindall, D. Kim, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 50, 691 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Hsu, R. Srinivasan, R. D. W. Bowersox, and S. W. North, AIAA J. 47, 2597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Danehy, S. O’Byrne, A. F. P. Houwing, J. S. Fox, and D. R. Smith, AIAA J. 41, 263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Jiang, M. Nishihara, and W. Lempert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

T. Ebata, Y. Anezaki, M. Fujii, N. Mikami, and M. Ito, Chem. Phys. 84, 151 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. F. Nutt, S. C. Haydon, and A. I. McIntosh, Chem. Phys. Lett. 62, 402 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. Orlemann, C. Schulz, and J. Wolfrum, Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heat Transfer Asian Res. (1)

S. Nakaya, M. Kasahara, M. Tsue, and M. Kono, Heat Transfer Asian Res. 34, 40 (2005).

J. Chem. Phys. (4)

J. W. Thoman, J. A. Gray, J. L. Durant, and P. H. Paul, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8156 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Hunter, S. A. Reid, D. C. Robie, and H. Reisler, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 1093 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, and W. H. Humphries, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 104309 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, and C. D. Carter, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 204302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

I. S. McDermid and J. B. Laudenslager, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 483 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (3)

G. Hancock and M. Saunders, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 2014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. B. Paci, J. Few, S. Gowrie, and G. Hancock, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 2554 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Settersten, B. D. Patterson, H. Kronemayer, V. Sick, C. Schulz, and J. W. Daily, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 5328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation Program for Diatomic Molecules, Version 1.5: SRI International Report (1999).

M. R. Edwards, A. Dogariu, and R. B. Miles, in 51st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting (AIAA, 2013) paper 2013-0043.

R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, “Advanced laser diagnostics development for the characterization of gaseous high speed flows,” Ph.D. dissertation (Texas A&M University, 2012).

B. F. Bathel, C. T. Johansen, P. M. Danehy, J. A. Inman, S. B. Jones, and C. P. Goyne, in 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting (AIAA, 2011), pp. 2011–3246.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Raw PLIF images (200-shot average) probing two different rotational states at time delays of (a) 1200 ns for J=1.5 and (b) 1600 ns for J=8.5.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimentally obtained streamwise velocity (top panel) and rotational temperature (bottom panel) profiles along the underexpanded jet centerline. CFD simulation velocity and temperature profiles are shown for comparison.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Bottom panel) Total fluorescence and quenching NO(X2Π) recovery yields along the underexpanded jet centerline for a 10% NO in N2 flow. Also shown in red is the total recovery fraction in NO(X2Π,v=1) formed by both mechanisms. (Top panel) Relevant range of pressures along the underexpanded jet centerline derived from CFD simulations.

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