Abstract

An angular spectrum analysis system was demonstrated to monitor the optical resonant mode of a photonic crystal (PC) sensor comprised of a one-dimensional grating structure. Exposed to solutions with different refractive indices or adsorbed with biomaterials, the PC sensor exhibited changes of the optical resonant modes. The developed detection system utilized a focused laser beam to detect shifts of the resonant angle, and thereby allowed a kinetic analysis of chemical absorption. Such a detection apparatus offers an adjustable angular resolution and a tunable detection range for a wide variety of refractometric sensing applications. A limit of detection of 6.57×105 refractive index unit has been observed. The instrument also offers an imaging capability of rapidly characterizing low-contrast samples deposited on the PC surface with a spatial resolution of 10 μm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, Analyst 138, 5886 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, Lab Chip 13, 2124 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

A. L. Washburn and R. C. Bailey, Analyst 136, 227 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Magnusson, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, and Y. Ding, Sensors 11, 1476 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, Nano Lett. 10, 2511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. T. Cunningham and L. Laing, Expert Rev. Proteomics 3, 271 (2006).

2004

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators B 99, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1988

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, Nature 332, 615 (1988).

1978

M. G. Darwin, Long Life Mag. 2, 14 (1978).

Adato, R.

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, Nano Lett. 10, 2511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aksu, S.

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, Nano Lett. 10, 2511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, Nano Lett. 10, 2511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Artar, A.

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, Nano Lett. 10, 2511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, R. C.

A. L. Washburn and R. C. Bailey, Analyst 136, 227 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bashir, R.

Block, I. D.

Chaudhery, V.

Chen, W.

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, Analyst 138, 5886 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. S.

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, Analyst 138, 5886 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. S.

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clark, P. P.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, Lab Chip 13, 2124 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, A. J.

A. J. Cunningham, Introduction to Bioanalytical Sensors (Wiley, 1998).

Cunningham, B. T.

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, Analyst 138, 5886 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, Lab Chip 13, 2124 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, C.-S. Huang, J. Polans, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Lett. 37, 2565 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, N. Ganesh, S. I. Jones, B. R. Dorvel, V. Chaudhery, L. O. Vodkin, R. Bashir, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Express 17, 13222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham and L. Laing, Expert Rev. Proteomics 3, 271 (2006).

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators B 99, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Darwin, M. G.

M. G. Darwin, Long Life Mag. 2, 14 (1978).

Ding, Y.

R. Magnusson, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, and Y. Ding, Sensors 11, 1476 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dorvel, B. R.

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gallegos, D.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, Lab Chip 13, 2124 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ganesh, N.

George, S.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, Lab Chip 13, 2124 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gerstenmaier, J.

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators B 99, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harley, B. A.

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, Analyst 138, 5886 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-S.

Huang, M.

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, Nano Lett. 10, 2511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Irfan, U.

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jones, S. I.

Knoll, W.

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, Nature 332, 615 (1988).

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laing, L.

B. T. Cunningham and L. Laing, Expert Rev. Proteomics 3, 271 (2006).

Li, P. Y.

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators B 99, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators B 99, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, Lab Chip 13, 2124 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Long, K. D.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, Lab Chip 13, 2124 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, Analyst 138, 5886 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, Analyst 138, 5886 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, C.-S. Huang, J. Polans, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Lett. 37, 2565 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, R.

R. Magnusson, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, and Y. Ding, Sensors 11, 1476 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mathias, P. C.

Narayanaswamy, R.

R. Narayanaswamy and O. S. Wolfbeis, Optical Sensors: Industrial, Environmental and Diagnostic Applications (Springer, 2004), Vol. 1.

Nath, P.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, Lab Chip 13, 2124 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Polans, J.

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, Analyst 138, 5886 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Chaudhery, M. Lu, C.-S. Huang, J. Polans, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, Opt. Lett. 37, 2565 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rothenhäusler, B.

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, Nature 332, 615 (1988).

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tan, R.

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vodkin, L. O.

Washburn, A. L.

A. L. Washburn and R. C. Bailey, Analyst 136, 227 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wawro, D.

R. Magnusson, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, and Y. Ding, Sensors 11, 1476 (2011).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolfbeis, O. S.

R. Narayanaswamy and O. S. Wolfbeis, Optical Sensors: Industrial, Environmental and Diagnostic Applications (Springer, 2004), Vol. 1.

Yanik, A. A.

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, Nano Lett. 10, 2511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, Analyst 138, 5886 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, Lab Chip 13, 2124 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zangar, R. C.

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhuo, Y.

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, Analyst 138, 5886 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerman, S.

R. Magnusson, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, and Y. Ding, Sensors 11, 1476 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Analyst

A. L. Washburn and R. C. Bailey, Analyst 136, 227 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, Analyst 138, 5886 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Expert Rev. Proteomics

B. T. Cunningham and L. Laing, Expert Rev. Proteomics 3, 271 (2006).

Lab Chip

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, Lab Chip 13, 2124 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Long Life Mag.

M. G. Darwin, Long Life Mag. 2, 14 (1978).

Nano Lett.

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, Nano Lett. 10, 2511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, Nature 332, 615 (1988).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, Science 317, 783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

P. Y. Li, B. Lin, J. Gerstenmaier, and B. T. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators B 99, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sensors

R. Magnusson, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, and Y. Ding, Sensors 11, 1476 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. J. Cunningham, Introduction to Bioanalytical Sensors (Wiley, 1998).

R. Narayanaswamy and O. S. Wolfbeis, Optical Sensors: Industrial, Environmental and Diagnostic Applications (Springer, 2004), Vol. 1.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) A schematic of PC structure (not to scale). The grating structure was fabricated using replica-molding. (b) The complete layout of the experimental setup. The PC sensor is illuminated with an expanded He–Ne laser beam. The incoming laser light was focused along the θ-direction in the xz plane while being collimated in the yz plane. The transmitted light was collected by a cylindrical lens and quantified by a CCD camera. Inset: the intensity image captured by the camera showing two minimums of transmission intensity as “dark lines.”

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Angular transmission spectra with the PC sensor immersed in DMSO–water mixture solutions with concentrations of DMSO varying from 1% to 10%. Inset: the measured resonant angles versus the index of refraction of DMSO solutions [12]. The measured resonant angles were fitted with a linear function shown by the red line.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dynamic detection of resonant angle shifts for solutions with different refractive indexes pumped through the channel.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Time-dependent resonant angle variation when the PC sensor was immersed in DI water.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time resolved resonant angle shift due to the deposition of the alternating polyelectrolyte multilayers.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) The reconstructed USAF1951 pattern. The color bar represents the angle shift of the PC sensor. (b) The profile of resonant angle distribution along the three line pairs marked in (a).

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