Abstract

In order to meet the demands for applications of optical refrigerators in the fields of spaceflight, aviation, space science, and detection, a 2 wt. % Yb3+-doped LuLiF4 crystal, as a new laser cooling material, was prepared and demonstrated by using a 178 mW diode laser centered at 1015 nm and a resonant extra-cavity scheme with an enhancement factor of 12.8. Cooling efficiency of 1.27% and a temperature drop of 14.3K/W are obtained with 79% of the incident laser power being absorbed. Based on our results, a sample with background absorption of α=4.2×104cm1 can be potentially cooled down to 145K. Our investigation shows that Yb3+-doped LuLiF4 crystal is potentially a promising candidate for solid-state refrigeration.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. Edwards, T. Gosnell, and C. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Sheik-Bahae and R. I. Epstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 247403 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, Phys. Rev. A 83, 013404 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Z. Dong, X. L. Zhang, and L. Li, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 939 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Z. Dong and X. L. Zhang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 3041 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. W. Hoyt, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, B. C. Edwards, and J. E. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3600 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Zhang, D. H. Li, R. J. Chen, and Q. H. Xiong, Nature 493, 504 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Bigotta, D. Parisi, L. Bonelli, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and A. Di Lieto, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 013109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Patterson, S. Bigotta, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. Parisi, M. Tonelli, and R. I. Epstein, Opt. Express 16, 1704 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. D. Melgaard, D. V. Seletskiy, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Opt. Lett. 38, 1588 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Nat. Photonics 4, 161 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. I. Epstein, J. J. Brown, B. C. Edwards, and A. Gibbs, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4815 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. J. Condon, S. R. Bowman, P. O. O’Connor, R. S. Quimby, and C. E. Mungan, Opt. Express 17, 5466 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. I. Epstein and M. Sheik-Bahae, Optical Refrigeration (Wiley, 2009). Chap. 3, pp. 75–97.
  15. B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. R. Yu, and U. N. Singh, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Bensalah, Y. Guyot, A. Brenier, H. Sato, T. Fukuda, and G. Boulon, J. Alloys Compd. 380, 15 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. V. Seletskiy, M. P. Hehlen, R. I. Epstein, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Adv. Opt. Photon. 4, 78 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. V. Seletskiy, M. P. Hasselbeck, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 181106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986), Sect. 11.3.
  20. E. S. L. Filho, G. Nemova, S. Loranger, and R. Kashyap, Opt. Express 21, 024711 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. D. Melgaard, “Cryogenic optical refrigeration: laser cooling of solids below 123  K,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of New Mexico, 2013).

2013 (5)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, Phys. Rev. A 83, 013404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Nat. Photonics 4, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Seletskiy, M. P. Hasselbeck, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

S. Bigotta, D. Parisi, L. Bonelli, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and A. Di Lieto, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 013109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. Sheik-Bahae and R. I. Epstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 247403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. R. Yu, and U. N. Singh, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Bensalah, Y. Guyot, A. Brenier, H. Sato, T. Fukuda, and G. Boulon, J. Alloys Compd. 380, 15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. I. Epstein, J. J. Brown, B. C. Edwards, and A. Gibbs, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. W. Hoyt, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, B. C. Edwards, and J. E. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. Edwards, T. Gosnell, and C. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. E.

C. W. Hoyt, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, B. C. Edwards, and J. E. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. R. Yu, and U. N. Singh, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bensalah, A.

A. Bensalah, Y. Guyot, A. Brenier, H. Sato, T. Fukuda, and G. Boulon, J. Alloys Compd. 380, 15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bigotta, S.

D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Nat. Photonics 4, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Patterson, S. Bigotta, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. Parisi, M. Tonelli, and R. I. Epstein, Opt. Express 16, 1704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bigotta, D. Parisi, L. Bonelli, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and A. Di Lieto, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 013109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonelli, L.

S. Bigotta, D. Parisi, L. Bonelli, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and A. Di Lieto, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 013109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

A. Bensalah, Y. Guyot, A. Brenier, H. Sato, T. Fukuda, and G. Boulon, J. Alloys Compd. 380, 15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, S. R.

Brenier, A.

A. Bensalah, Y. Guyot, A. Brenier, H. Sato, T. Fukuda, and G. Boulon, J. Alloys Compd. 380, 15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. J.

R. I. Epstein, J. J. Brown, B. C. Edwards, and A. Gibbs, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buchwald, M. I.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. Edwards, T. Gosnell, and C. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. J.

J. Zhang, D. H. Li, R. J. Chen, and Q. H. Xiong, Nature 493, 504 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Condon, N. J.

Di Lieto, A.

S. D. Melgaard, D. V. Seletskiy, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Opt. Lett. 38, 1588 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Nat. Photonics 4, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Bigotta, D. Parisi, L. Bonelli, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and A. Di Lieto, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 013109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, G. Z.

Edwards, B.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. Edwards, T. Gosnell, and C. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, B. C.

R. I. Epstein, J. J. Brown, B. C. Edwards, and A. Gibbs, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Hoyt, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, B. C. Edwards, and J. E. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, R. I.

D. V. Seletskiy, M. P. Hehlen, R. I. Epstein, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Adv. Opt. Photon. 4, 78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Patterson, S. Bigotta, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. Parisi, M. Tonelli, and R. I. Epstein, Opt. Express 16, 1704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae and R. I. Epstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 247403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Epstein, J. J. Brown, B. C. Edwards, and A. Gibbs, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Hoyt, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, B. C. Edwards, and J. E. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. Edwards, T. Gosnell, and C. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Epstein and M. Sheik-Bahae, Optical Refrigeration (Wiley, 2009). Chap. 3, pp. 75–97.

Filho, E. S. L.

E. S. L. Filho, G. Nemova, S. Loranger, and R. Kashyap, Opt. Express 21, 024711 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, T.

A. Bensalah, Y. Guyot, A. Brenier, H. Sato, T. Fukuda, and G. Boulon, J. Alloys Compd. 380, 15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, A.

R. I. Epstein, J. J. Brown, B. C. Edwards, and A. Gibbs, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gosnell, T.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. Edwards, T. Gosnell, and C. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

A. Bensalah, Y. Guyot, A. Brenier, H. Sato, T. Fukuda, and G. Boulon, J. Alloys Compd. 380, 15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hasselbeck, M. P.

D. V. Seletskiy, M. P. Hasselbeck, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

Hoyt, C. W.

C. W. Hoyt, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, B. C. Edwards, and J. E. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

E. S. L. Filho, G. Nemova, S. Loranger, and R. Kashyap, Opt. Express 21, 024711 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, Phys. Rev. A 83, 013404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. H.

J. Zhang, D. H. Li, R. J. Chen, and Q. H. Xiong, Nature 493, 504 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Loranger, S.

E. S. L. Filho, G. Nemova, S. Loranger, and R. Kashyap, Opt. Express 21, 024711 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Melgaard, S. D.

S. D. Melgaard, D. V. Seletskiy, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Opt. Lett. 38, 1588 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Nat. Photonics 4, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Melgaard, “Cryogenic optical refrigeration: laser cooling of solids below 123  K,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of New Mexico, 2013).

Mungan, C.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. Edwards, T. Gosnell, and C. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mungan, C. E.

Nemova, G.

E. S. L. Filho, G. Nemova, S. Loranger, and R. Kashyap, Opt. Express 21, 024711 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, Phys. Rev. A 83, 013404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, P. O.

Parisi, D.

W. Patterson, S. Bigotta, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. Parisi, M. Tonelli, and R. I. Epstein, Opt. Express 16, 1704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bigotta, D. Parisi, L. Bonelli, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and A. Di Lieto, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 013109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, W.

Petros, M.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. R. Yu, and U. N. Singh, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quimby, R. S.

Sato, H.

A. Bensalah, Y. Guyot, A. Brenier, H. Sato, T. Fukuda, and G. Boulon, J. Alloys Compd. 380, 15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seletskiy, D. V.

S. D. Melgaard, D. V. Seletskiy, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Opt. Lett. 38, 1588 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Seletskiy, M. P. Hehlen, R. I. Epstein, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Adv. Opt. Photon. 4, 78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Seletskiy, M. P. Hasselbeck, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Nat. Photonics 4, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

S. D. Melgaard, D. V. Seletskiy, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Opt. Lett. 38, 1588 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Seletskiy, M. P. Hehlen, R. I. Epstein, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Adv. Opt. Photon. 4, 78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Nat. Photonics 4, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Seletskiy, M. P. Hasselbeck, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Patterson, S. Bigotta, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. Parisi, M. Tonelli, and R. I. Epstein, Opt. Express 16, 1704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae and R. I. Epstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 247403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Hoyt, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, B. C. Edwards, and J. E. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Epstein and M. Sheik-Bahae, Optical Refrigeration (Wiley, 2009). Chap. 3, pp. 75–97.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986), Sect. 11.3.

Singh, U. N.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. R. Yu, and U. N. Singh, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Toncelli, A.

S. Bigotta, D. Parisi, L. Bonelli, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and A. Di Lieto, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 013109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, M.

S. D. Melgaard, D. V. Seletskiy, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Opt. Lett. 38, 1588 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Nat. Photonics 4, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Patterson, S. Bigotta, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. Parisi, M. Tonelli, and R. I. Epstein, Opt. Express 16, 1704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bigotta, D. Parisi, L. Bonelli, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and A. Di Lieto, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 013109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. R. Yu, and U. N. Singh, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Q. H.

J. Zhang, D. H. Li, R. J. Chen, and Q. H. Xiong, Nature 493, 504 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. R.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. R. Yu, and U. N. Singh, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, D. H. Li, R. J. Chen, and Q. H. Xiong, Nature 493, 504 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. L.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. V. Seletskiy, M. P. Hasselbeck, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

A. Bensalah, Y. Guyot, A. Brenier, H. Sato, T. Fukuda, and G. Boulon, J. Alloys Compd. 380, 15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

R. I. Epstein, J. J. Brown, B. C. Edwards, and A. Gibbs, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. R. Yu, and U. N. Singh, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Bigotta, D. Parisi, L. Bonelli, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and A. Di Lieto, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 013109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, and M. Sheik-Bahae, Nat. Photonics 4, 161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. Edwards, T. Gosnell, and C. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, D. H. Li, R. J. Chen, and Q. H. Xiong, Nature 493, 504 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, Phys. Rev. A 83, 013404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae and R. I. Epstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 247403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Hoyt, M. Sheik-Bahae, R. I. Epstein, B. C. Edwards, and J. E. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3600 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. D. Melgaard, “Cryogenic optical refrigeration: laser cooling of solids below 123  K,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of New Mexico, 2013).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986), Sect. 11.3.

R. I. Epstein and M. Sheik-Bahae, Optical Refrigeration (Wiley, 2009). Chap. 3, pp. 75–97.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Extra-cavity enhancement scheme for laser cooling of solids. M1 with R1=70% and M2 with R2=99.9% compose an optical cavity. The feedback stabilization and control electronics are not shown in figure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption (lower red curve) and emission (upper blue curve) spectra of 2 wt. % Yb3+-doped LuLiF4 crystal at a pump wavelength of λp=1015nm polarized along the c axis.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temperature data (squares) and model fit (line) obtained utilizing Eq. (3) versus absorbed power at 1015 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Cooling efficiency contour surface plot versus the pump laser wavelength and the temperature of lattice for ηext=0.995 and αb=2.5×103cm1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Cooling efficiency contour surface plot versus the pump laser wavelength and the temperature of the lattice assuming ηext=0.995 and αb=4.2×104cm1.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ηext=ηewr/(ηewr+wnr),
Ecav=(1R1)(1+R2exp(αl))(1exp(αl))αl[1R1R2exp(αl)]2.
ηcoolPabs=Ploadair+Ploadrad(4εsσBAsTe3+κairAs)ΔT,

Metrics