Abstract

A system for generating radio frequency signals with orbital angular momentum (OAM) is proposed and certificated for the first time, which employs an array of multiple optical-true-time-delay elements and circular antennas array (CAAs). A constructive Fourier series theory about CAAs collectively forming an OAM radio beam is demonstrated. An optical spectrum processor offers the four lines high-resolution time delay by adding a series of linear optical phase shifts. The OAM radio beam with topological charge L=1 is produced and measured successfully.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

2007 (1)

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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Abakoumov, D.

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
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Baxter, G.

Bergman, J.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
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F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, New J. Phys. 14, 033001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

Bolger, J. A.

Bolle, C.

Borel, P. I.

Burrows, E. C.

Carozzi, T. D.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Esmaeelpour, M.

Essiambre, R. J.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Frisken, S.

Gao, C.

X. Gao, S. Huang, J. Zhou, Y. Wei, C. Gao, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, J. Opt. 15, 105401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

X. Gao, S. Huang, J. Zhou, Y. Wei, C. Gao, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, J. Opt. 15, 105401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Gu, W.

X. Gao, S. Huang, J. Zhou, Y. Wei, C. Gao, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, J. Opt. 15, 105401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

Huang, S.

X. Gao, S. Huang, J. Zhou, Y. Wei, C. Gao, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, J. Opt. 15, 105401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. X. H.

Ibragimov, N. H.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Istomin, Y. N.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khamitova, R.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Li, S.

Lingle, R.

Liu, X.

Magill, P.

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mari, E.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, New J. Phys. 14, 033001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McCurdy, A. H.

Minasian, R. A.

Mumtaz, S.

Nelson, L.

Palmer, K.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peckham, D. W.

Poole, S.

Randel, S.

Ren, Y.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roelens, M. A. F.

Romanato, F.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, New J. Phys. 14, 033001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ryf, R.

Shao, Y.

Sierra, A.

Sjöholm, J.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

Sponselli, A.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, New J. Phys. 14, 033001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tamburini, F.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, New J. Phys. 14, 033001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Terriza, G. M.

G. M. Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Then, H.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thidé, B.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, New J. Phys. 14, 033001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torner, L.

G. M. Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J. P.

G. M. Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vaziri, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Wang, Z.

Wei, Y.

X. Gao, S. Huang, J. Zhou, Y. Wei, C. Gao, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, J. Opt. 15, 105401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Yan, Y.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yi, X.

Yu, J.

Yuan, X.-C.

Yue, Y.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, N.

Zhang, X.

X. Gao, S. Huang, J. Zhou, Y. Wei, C. Gao, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, J. Opt. 15, 105401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

Zhou, B.

Zhou, J.

X. Gao, S. Huang, J. Zhou, Y. Wei, C. Gao, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, J. Opt. 15, 105401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

Zhu, B.

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. (1)

X. Gao, S. Huang, J. Zhou, Y. Wei, C. Gao, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, J. Opt. 15, 105401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 412, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, New J. Phys. 14, 033001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic configuration for generating the OAM of 20 GHz RF signals employing (a) CAAs and (b) OSP. The green line represents the optical signals’ path; the red line stands for the RF signals’ path.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated intensity and phase of the generated OAM radio beam. The observed distance (range) is 50 (20) times the wavelength. (a) Intensity (normalized units), N=10, L0=1; (b) phase, N=10, L0=1; (c) phase, N=10, L0=9; (d) phase, N=20, L0=9.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic diagram of added phase shift control. The black line is the experimental optical spectrum chart in the OSP measured by optical spectrum analyzers (OSA). The red dotted lines stand for the borders of each WDM channel; the blue line represents the added phase shift which fixes to the required phase change of the RF signals.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated phase distribution of the generated OAM radio beam’s electromagnetic field. (a) 2D phase of the plane upon propagation, L=1, N=4, D=6cm, Z=75cm; (b) the 1D phase curve at the black dotted line in (a).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental results of the generated OAM radio beam’s electromagnetic characteristic. L=1, N=4, D=6cm, Z=75cm. (a) The 1-D measured intensity of field; (b) the 1-D measured phase distribution.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δφ=2πL/N,
g(θ)=AeiLθ[rect(θΔθ)*n=NNδ(θn2πN)],
g(θ)=n=n=Gnexp(j·Ln·θ),
Gn=A·N·Δθ2πsinc(nN·Δθ2π),
Ln=L+nN,n=0,±1,±2.
|L|<N/2.
δϕRF=δϕ1δϕ0+δϕ0δϕ12=δϕ1δϕ12,

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