Abstract

A ZnO nanoparticle layer was synthesized by the sol-gel method on ITO glass. Devices with a ZnO nanoparticle layer/polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) heterojunction structure were then fabricated and the room temperature electroluminescence (EL) spectra were studied. Under DC bias, ultraviolet (UV) EL at 390 nm from the ZnO band edge emission was observed, and defect-related emission of ZnO at 600 and 760 nm were also detected. The EL mechanisms are discussed in terms of the carrier tunneling process.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

Q. Yang, Y. Liu, C. Pan, J. Chen, X. Wen, and Z. Wang, Nano Lett. 13, 607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhao, Y. Wang, S. Gao, Y. Yang, and Z. Xu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 037802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, C. Shan, B. Li, Z. Zhang, K. Liu, and D. Shen, Opt. Lett. 38, 2113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

P. Ni, C. Shan, S. Wang, B. Li, Z. Zhang, and D. Shen, Opt. Lett. 37, 1568 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Zaman, A. Zainelabdin, G. Amin, O. Nur, and M. Willander, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 064324 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

M. Tu, Y. Su, S. Wu, T. Guo, T. Wen, and C. Huang, Synth. Met. 161, 450 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, S. Zhao, Z. Xu, C. Kong, and W. Gong, Org. Electron. 12, 92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Zhao, P. Kan, Z. Xu, C. Kong, D. Wang, Y. Yan, and Y. Wang, Org. Electron. 11, 789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Das, J. H. Choi, J. P. Kar, T. I. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 472 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

X. Sun, J. Huang, J. Wang, and Z. Xu, Nano Lett. 8, 1219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Zhou, M. Wissinger, J. Fallert, R. Hauschild, F. Stelzl, C. Klingshim, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sung and C. Y. Gyu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 021105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Zhao, H. Shi, J. He, Z. Xiong, H. Ding, E. G. Obbard, Y. Zhan, W. Huang, and X. Hou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1038 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, and M. G. Mason, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Ya. I.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Amin, G.

S. Zaman, A. Zainelabdin, G. Amin, O. Nur, and M. Willander, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 064324 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Avrutin, V.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bagnall, D. M.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1038 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Q. Yang, Y. Liu, C. Pan, J. Chen, X. Wen, and Z. Wang, Nano Lett. 13, 607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 021105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1038 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-J.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. J.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. H.

S. N. Das, J. H. Choi, J. P. Kar, T. I. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 472 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Das, S. N.

S. N. Das, J. H. Choi, J. P. Kar, T. I. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 472 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H.

S. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Zhao, H. Shi, J. He, Z. Xiong, H. Ding, E. G. Obbard, Y. Zhan, W. Huang, and X. Hou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ding, X.

S. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Zhao, H. Shi, J. He, Z. Xiong, H. Ding, E. G. Obbard, Y. Zhan, W. Huang, and X. Hou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dogan, S.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fallert, J.

H. Zhou, M. Wissinger, J. Fallert, R. Hauschild, F. Stelzl, C. Klingshim, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gao, S.

S. Zhao, Y. Wang, S. Gao, Y. Yang, and Z. Xu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 037802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gong, W.

D. Wang, S. Zhao, Z. Xu, C. Kong, and W. Gong, Org. Electron. 12, 92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goto, T.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1038 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

M. Tu, Y. Su, S. Wu, T. Guo, T. Wen, and C. Huang, Synth. Met. 161, 450 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gyu, C. Y.

J. A. Sung and C. Y. Gyu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hauschild, R.

H. Zhou, M. Wissinger, J. Fallert, R. Hauschild, F. Stelzl, C. Klingshim, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, J.

S. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Zhao, H. Shi, J. He, Z. Xiong, H. Ding, E. G. Obbard, Y. Zhan, W. Huang, and X. Hou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

He, R.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X.

S. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Zhao, H. Shi, J. He, Z. Xiong, H. Ding, E. G. Obbard, Y. Zhan, W. Huang, and X. Hou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

M. Tu, Y. Su, S. Wu, T. Guo, T. Wen, and C. Huang, Synth. Met. 161, 450 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

X. Sun, J. Huang, J. Wang, and Z. Xu, Nano Lett. 8, 1219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

S. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Zhao, H. Shi, J. He, Z. Xiong, H. Ding, E. G. Obbard, Y. Zhan, W. Huang, and X. Hou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hung, L. S.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, and M. G. Mason, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, H.

H. Zhou, M. Wissinger, J. Fallert, R. Hauschild, F. Stelzl, C. Klingshim, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kan, P.

S. Zhao, P. Kan, Z. Xu, C. Kong, D. Wang, Y. Yan, and Y. Wang, Org. Electron. 11, 789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kar, J. P.

S. N. Das, J. H. Choi, J. P. Kar, T. I. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 472 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klingshim, C.

H. Zhou, M. Wissinger, J. Fallert, R. Hauschild, F. Stelzl, C. Klingshim, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kong, C.

D. Wang, S. Zhao, Z. Xu, C. Kong, and W. Gong, Org. Electron. 12, 92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhao, P. Kan, Z. Xu, C. Kong, D. Wang, Y. Yan, and Y. Wang, Org. Electron. 11, 789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, S.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. I.

S. N. Das, J. H. Choi, J. P. Kar, T. I. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 472 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

Li, D.

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 021105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Liu, K.

Liu, Y.

Q. Yang, Y. Liu, C. Pan, J. Chen, X. Wen, and Z. Wang, Nano Lett. 13, 607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 021105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mason, M. G.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, and M. G. Mason, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morris, N.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Myoung, J. M.

S. N. Das, J. H. Choi, J. P. Kar, T. I. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 472 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ni, P.

Nur, O.

S. Zaman, A. Zainelabdin, G. Amin, O. Nur, and M. Willander, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 064324 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Obbard, E. G.

S. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Zhao, H. Shi, J. He, Z. Xiong, H. Ding, E. G. Obbard, Y. Zhan, W. Huang, and X. Hou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Özgür, Ü.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.

Q. Yang, Y. Liu, C. Pan, J. Chen, X. Wen, and Z. Wang, Nano Lett. 13, 607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pham, J.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reshchikov, M. A.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russo, R.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shan, C.

Shen, D.

Shen, M. Y.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1038 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shi, H.

S. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Zhao, H. Shi, J. He, Z. Xiong, H. Ding, E. G. Obbard, Y. Zhan, W. Huang, and X. Hou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stelzl, F.

H. Zhou, M. Wissinger, J. Fallert, R. Hauschild, F. Stelzl, C. Klingshim, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y.

M. Tu, Y. Su, S. Wu, T. Guo, T. Wen, and C. Huang, Synth. Met. 161, 450 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

X. Sun, J. Huang, J. Wang, and Z. Xu, Nano Lett. 8, 1219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sung, J. A.

J. A. Sung and C. Y. Gyu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, and M. G. Mason, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Teke, A.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tu, M.

M. Tu, Y. Su, S. Wu, T. Guo, T. Wen, and C. Huang, Synth. Met. 161, 450 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, S. Zhao, Z. Xu, C. Kong, and W. Gong, Org. Electron. 12, 92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhao, P. Kan, Z. Xu, C. Kong, D. Wang, Y. Yan, and Y. Wang, Org. Electron. 11, 789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

X. Sun, J. Huang, J. Wang, and Z. Xu, Nano Lett. 8, 1219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Wang, Y.

S. Zhao, Y. Wang, S. Gao, Y. Yang, and Z. Xu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 037802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhao, P. Kan, Z. Xu, C. Kong, D. Wang, Y. Yan, and Y. Wang, Org. Electron. 11, 789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Q. Yang, Y. Liu, C. Pan, J. Chen, X. Wen, and Z. Wang, Nano Lett. 13, 607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wen, T.

M. Tu, Y. Su, S. Wu, T. Guo, T. Wen, and C. Huang, Synth. Met. 161, 450 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wen, X.

Q. Yang, Y. Liu, C. Pan, J. Chen, X. Wen, and Z. Wang, Nano Lett. 13, 607 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Willander, M.

S. Zaman, A. Zainelabdin, G. Amin, O. Nur, and M. Willander, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 064324 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wissinger, M.

H. Zhou, M. Wissinger, J. Fallert, R. Hauschild, F. Stelzl, C. Klingshim, and H. Kalt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

M. Tu, Y. Su, S. Wu, T. Guo, T. Wen, and C. Huang, Synth. Met. 161, 450 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Z.

S. Zhang, X. Ding, J. Zhao, H. Shi, J. He, Z. Xiong, H. Ding, E. G. Obbard, Y. Zhan, W. Huang, and X. Hou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

S. Zhao, Y. Wang, S. Gao, Y. Yang, and Z. Xu, Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 037802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, S. Zhao, Z. Xu, C. Kong, and W. Gong, Org. Electron. 12, 92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhao, P. Kan, Z. Xu, C. Kong, D. Wang, Y. Yan, and Y. Wang, Org. Electron. 11, 789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, J. Huang, J. Wang, and Z. Xu, Nano Lett. 8, 1219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, Science 292, 1897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y.

S. Zhao, P. Kan, Z. Xu, C. Kong, D. Wang, Y. Yan, and Y. Wang, Org. Electron. 11, 789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of all the devices.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Top-view SEM of ZnO layers at (a) 30 nm, (b) 60 nm, (c) 90 nm grown on ITO without PMMA; (d) cross-sectional SEM of ZnO layer at 90 nm grown on ITO without PMMA. Figure 2(d) shows that the ZnO layer was composed entirely of ZnO nanoparticles.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized PL spectrum with different thicknesses of ZnO nanoparticle layers. The excitation wavelength was 325 nm. The inset of Fig. 3 shows the normalized PL excitation of the ZnO nanoparticle layer with a thickness of 60 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

EL spectra of different devices under forward bias conditions for (a) device 1, (b) device 2, and (c) device 3; the inset of Fig. 4(b) shows the normalized EL of device 2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) I–V characteristics and (b) EL power of devices 1, 2, and 3.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic energy band diagrams of this structure under (a) zero bias, (b) bias not enough for electron tunneling, and (c) bias enough for electron tunneling. The UV emission and visible emissions are also illustrated.

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