Abstract

We propose a terahertz (THz)-frequency synthetic aperture radar imaging technique based on self-mixing (SM) interferometry, using a quantum cascade laser. A signal processing method is employed which extracts and exploits the radar-related information contained in the SM signals, enabling the creation of THz images with improved spatial resolution. We demonstrate this by imaging a standard resolution test target, achieving resolution beyond the diffraction limit.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

W. Glastre, E. Lacot, O. Jacquin, O. Hugon, and H. G. De Chatellus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 476 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Moll, P. Schops, and V. Krozer, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Donati, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 393 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Opt. Lett. 36, 2587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2008

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Wallace, E. MacPherson, J. A. Zeitler, and C. Reid, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 3120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Witomski, E. Lacot, O. Hugon, and O. Jacquin, Opt. Lett. 31, 3031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, P. Rio, J. R. Tucker, and A. D. Rakić, Proc. SPIE 6038, 60381O (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, Faraday Discuss. 126, 255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. Zinovev, G. Walker, M. Smith, and J. Chamberlain, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, J. Opt. A 4, S283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

1980

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Alhathlool, R.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. Leng Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. Giles Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, D. D.

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, Faraday Discuss. 126, 255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

Beere, H. E.

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beltram, F.

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berry, E.

A. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. Zinovev, G. Walker, M. Smith, and J. Chamberlain, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bertling, K.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. Leng Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. Giles Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Opt. Express 21, 22194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, P. Rio, J. R. Tucker, and A. D. Rakić, Proc. SPIE 6038, 60381O (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borri, S.

Bosch, T.

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, J. Opt. A 4, S283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, M.

Chamberlain, J.

A. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. Zinovev, G. Walker, M. Smith, and J. Chamberlain, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chandrayan, N.

Chowdhury, S.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. Leng Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. Giles Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cluff, J.

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, Faraday Discuss. 126, 255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Colella, B. D.

Columbo, L.

Coulombe, M. J.

Dabbicco, M.

Danylov, A. A.

Davies, A. G.

De Chatellus, H. G.

Dean, P.

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Opt. Express 21, 22194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. Leng Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. Giles Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Opt. Lett. 36, 2587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Donati, S.

S. Donati, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 393 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, J. Opt. A 4, S283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A.

A. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. Zinovev, G. Walker, M. Smith, and J. Chamberlain, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, Faraday Discuss. 126, 255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gatesman, A. J.

Giles, R. H.

Giles Davies, A.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. Leng Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. Giles Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Giuliani, G.

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, J. Opt. A 4, S283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Glastre, W.

Goodhue, W. D.

Goyette, T. M.

Green, R. P.

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Green, T. J.

Gunawardena, A.

A. Gunawardena and D. Longstaff, in Radar Conference, 1995, Record of the IEEE 1995 International (IEEE, 1995), pp. 239–243.

Harrison, P.

Hu, B.

Hugon, O.

Ikonic, Z.

Indjin, D.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. Leng Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. Giles Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Opt. Express 21, 22194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Opt. Lett. 36, 2587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jacquin, O.

Kamermanb, G.

V. Molebny, G. Kamermanb, and O. Steinvallc, Proc. SPIE 7835, 783502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. M.

D. M. Kane and K. A. Shore, Unlocking Dynamical Diversity: Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Lasers (Wiley, 2005).

Keeley, J.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. Leng Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. Giles Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S. P.

Kliese, R.

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Opt. Lett. 36, 2587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Krozer, V.

J. Moll, P. Schops, and V. Krozer, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lachab, M.

Lacot, E.

Lang, R.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Leng Lim, Y.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. Leng Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. Giles Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. H.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. Leng Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. Giles Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y. L.

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Opt. Express 21, 22194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Opt. Lett. 36, 2587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, P. Rio, J. R. Tucker, and A. D. Rakić, Proc. SPIE 6038, 60381O (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. Leng Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. Giles Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Opt. Express 21, 22194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Opt. Lett. 36, 2587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Longstaff, D.

A. Gunawardena and D. Longstaff, in Radar Conference, 1995, Record of the IEEE 1995 International (IEEE, 1995), pp. 239–243.

MacPherson, E.

Mahler, L.

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marcus, S.

Mensa, D. L.

D. L. Mensa, High Resolution Radar Cross-Section Imaging (Artech House, 1991).

Mezzapesa, F.

Molebny, V.

V. Molebny, G. Kamermanb, and O. Steinvallc, Proc. SPIE 7835, 783502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moll, J.

J. Moll, P. Schops, and V. Krozer, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nikolic, M.

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Opt. Lett. 36, 2587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nixon, W. E.

Norgia, M.

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, J. Opt. A 4, S283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M.

Ozdemir, C.

C. Ozdemir, Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging with MATLAB Algorithms (Wiley, 2012).

Pye, R. J.

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, and D. D. Arnone, Faraday Discuss. 126, 255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qian, X.

Rakic, A. D.

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Opt. Express 21, 22194 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. Leng Lim, R. Alhathlool, S. Chowdhury, T. Taimre, L. H. Li, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. Giles Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Opt. Lett. 36, 2587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, P. Rio, J. R. Tucker, and A. D. Rakić, Proc. SPIE 6038, 60381O (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reid, C.

Rio, P.

Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, P. Rio, J. R. Tucker, and A. D. Rakić, Proc. SPIE 6038, 60381O (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

Ritchie, D. A.

R. P. Green, J. H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scamarcio, G.

Schops, P.

J. Moll, P. Schops, and V. Krozer, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shore, K. A.

D. M. Kane and K. A. Shore, Unlocking Dynamical Diversity: Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Lasers (Wiley, 2005).

Smith, M.

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A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, Opt. Express 21, 22194 (2013).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus used for target measurements. (a) Current stimulus signal; the current range was selected to sweep the laser frequency through three external cavity resonances in the region where the laser was most sensitive to optical feedback. (b) Corresponding SM voltage signal measured across the laser terminals after 40× gain (28 dB) with a static target. For illustrative purposes, the magnitude of the SM signal has been increased tenfold. The voltage signal shown is typical for this experimental arrangement. (c) The amplified SM voltage is acquired using a computer-based data acquisition card (PC DAQ). A pair of off-axis parabolic mirrors focuses the beam onto the target, mounted on a computer-controlled translation stage. (d) Measurements are performed in a raster-scanning fashion. The target is moved laterally such that different portions of it are illuminated at each step. The step size of each lateral movement is smaller than the spot size resulting in overlapping area between each measurement.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Imaging results: (a) unprocessed SM image acquired through raster scanning and (b) processed ISAR image. The dotted vertical line separates the two scanned portions of the target. The horizontal axis in (a) corresponds to the relative target measurement position in the one-dimensional raster scan, while that in (b) corresponds to the position of the reconstructed scattering profile at the target surface.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

MTF of the unprocessed (circles) and processed (squares) imaging modalities. The dotted vertical line separates the two scanned portions of the target—groups. Each marker corresponds to one element, with each element containing three line pairs. The spatial frequency varies between elements.

Equations (1)

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ErScattered=ρ(r)ejk2R(r,r)+jθR(r)dr,

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