Abstract

We present a novel self-powered chip to detect the direction of incident light. This chip directly provides digitized output without the need of any off-chip power supply or optical or mechanical components. The chip was implemented in a standard 0.5 μm CMOS process. A microscale metal baffle was created by stacking all metal layers, contacts, and vias available in the process to produce on-chip shadowing. N-well/p+ photodiode arrays are located on both sides of the baffle to sense light. The photocurrent generated by a photodiode depends on the size of the photodiode and the shadowing. The shadowed area depends on the incident angle of the light. A current mirror circuit is used to compare the currents generated by the photodiodes on the opposite sides of the baffle and, consequently, provide a digital signal to indicate the incident light angle. Compared with the ideal linear digital light-angle detector with the same resolution, the presented sensor achieved the maximum error of only 2 deg over 110 deg test range.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Fish, S. Hamami, and O. Yadid-Pecht, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs 53, 1210 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Fish and O. Yadid-Pecht, in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1408–1411.
  3. M. Law, A. Bermak, and C. Shi, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs 58, 80 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Ay, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 5, 535 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Mobasser and C. C. Liebe, in International Federation of Automatic Control, St. Petersburg, Russia, June14–18, 2004.
  6. C.-Y. Lee, P.-C. Chou, C.-M. Chiang, and C.-F. Lin, Sensors 9, 3875 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Mousazadeh, A. Keyhani, A. Javadi, H. Mobli, K. Abrinia, and A. Sharifi, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 13, 1800 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Pissavin, J. Krebs, P. Lelong, P. Vidal, and R. Navoni, in Spacecraft Guidance, Navigation and Control Systems, Proceedings of the 3rd ESA International Conference (European Space Agency, 1997), Vol. 381, p. 611.
  9. A. El Gamal, D. Yang, and B. Fowler, Proc. SPIE 3650, 2 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. B. Catrysse, X. Liu, and A. El Gamal, Proc. SPIE 3965, 420 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Wang, T. Luo, H. Song, and J. B. Christen, Opt. Lett. 38, 4554 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Pineda and C. Arredondo, in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 002905–002910.
  13. S. Mobasser and C. Liebe, in Proceedings of 2003 IEEE Conference on Control Applications (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1483–1487.

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

M. Law, A. Bermak, and C. Shi, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs 58, 80 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ay, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 5, 535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

C.-Y. Lee, P.-C. Chou, C.-M. Chiang, and C.-F. Lin, Sensors 9, 3875 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mousazadeh, A. Keyhani, A. Javadi, H. Mobli, K. Abrinia, and A. Sharifi, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 13, 1800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Fish, S. Hamami, and O. Yadid-Pecht, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs 53, 1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. B. Catrysse, X. Liu, and A. El Gamal, Proc. SPIE 3965, 420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. El Gamal, D. Yang, and B. Fowler, Proc. SPIE 3650, 2 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Abrinia, K.

H. Mousazadeh, A. Keyhani, A. Javadi, H. Mobli, K. Abrinia, and A. Sharifi, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 13, 1800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arredondo, C.

F. Pineda and C. Arredondo, in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 002905–002910.

Ay, S.

S. Ay, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 5, 535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bermak, A.

M. Law, A. Bermak, and C. Shi, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs 58, 80 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P. B.

P. B. Catrysse, X. Liu, and A. El Gamal, Proc. SPIE 3965, 420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, C.-M.

C.-Y. Lee, P.-C. Chou, C.-M. Chiang, and C.-F. Lin, Sensors 9, 3875 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chou, P.-C.

C.-Y. Lee, P.-C. Chou, C.-M. Chiang, and C.-F. Lin, Sensors 9, 3875 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Christen, J. B.

El Gamal, A.

P. B. Catrysse, X. Liu, and A. El Gamal, Proc. SPIE 3965, 420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. El Gamal, D. Yang, and B. Fowler, Proc. SPIE 3650, 2 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fish, A.

A. Fish, S. Hamami, and O. Yadid-Pecht, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs 53, 1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Fish and O. Yadid-Pecht, in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1408–1411.

Fowler, B.

A. El Gamal, D. Yang, and B. Fowler, Proc. SPIE 3650, 2 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hamami, S.

A. Fish, S. Hamami, and O. Yadid-Pecht, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs 53, 1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Javadi, A.

H. Mousazadeh, A. Keyhani, A. Javadi, H. Mobli, K. Abrinia, and A. Sharifi, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 13, 1800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keyhani, A.

H. Mousazadeh, A. Keyhani, A. Javadi, H. Mobli, K. Abrinia, and A. Sharifi, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 13, 1800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, J.

P. Pissavin, J. Krebs, P. Lelong, P. Vidal, and R. Navoni, in Spacecraft Guidance, Navigation and Control Systems, Proceedings of the 3rd ESA International Conference (European Space Agency, 1997), Vol. 381, p. 611.

Law, M.

M. Law, A. Bermak, and C. Shi, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs 58, 80 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Lee, P.-C. Chou, C.-M. Chiang, and C.-F. Lin, Sensors 9, 3875 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lelong, P.

P. Pissavin, J. Krebs, P. Lelong, P. Vidal, and R. Navoni, in Spacecraft Guidance, Navigation and Control Systems, Proceedings of the 3rd ESA International Conference (European Space Agency, 1997), Vol. 381, p. 611.

Liebe, C.

S. Mobasser and C. Liebe, in Proceedings of 2003 IEEE Conference on Control Applications (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1483–1487.

Liebe, C. C.

S. Mobasser and C. C. Liebe, in International Federation of Automatic Control, St. Petersburg, Russia, June14–18, 2004.

Lin, C.-F.

C.-Y. Lee, P.-C. Chou, C.-M. Chiang, and C.-F. Lin, Sensors 9, 3875 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

P. B. Catrysse, X. Liu, and A. El Gamal, Proc. SPIE 3965, 420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T.

Mobasser, S.

S. Mobasser and C. C. Liebe, in International Federation of Automatic Control, St. Petersburg, Russia, June14–18, 2004.

S. Mobasser and C. Liebe, in Proceedings of 2003 IEEE Conference on Control Applications (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1483–1487.

Mobli, H.

H. Mousazadeh, A. Keyhani, A. Javadi, H. Mobli, K. Abrinia, and A. Sharifi, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 13, 1800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mousazadeh, H.

H. Mousazadeh, A. Keyhani, A. Javadi, H. Mobli, K. Abrinia, and A. Sharifi, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 13, 1800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Navoni, R.

P. Pissavin, J. Krebs, P. Lelong, P. Vidal, and R. Navoni, in Spacecraft Guidance, Navigation and Control Systems, Proceedings of the 3rd ESA International Conference (European Space Agency, 1997), Vol. 381, p. 611.

Pineda, F.

F. Pineda and C. Arredondo, in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 002905–002910.

Pissavin, P.

P. Pissavin, J. Krebs, P. Lelong, P. Vidal, and R. Navoni, in Spacecraft Guidance, Navigation and Control Systems, Proceedings of the 3rd ESA International Conference (European Space Agency, 1997), Vol. 381, p. 611.

Sharifi, A.

H. Mousazadeh, A. Keyhani, A. Javadi, H. Mobli, K. Abrinia, and A. Sharifi, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 13, 1800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shi, C.

M. Law, A. Bermak, and C. Shi, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs 58, 80 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, H.

Vidal, P.

P. Pissavin, J. Krebs, P. Lelong, P. Vidal, and R. Navoni, in Spacecraft Guidance, Navigation and Control Systems, Proceedings of the 3rd ESA International Conference (European Space Agency, 1997), Vol. 381, p. 611.

Wang, H.

Yadid-Pecht, O.

A. Fish, S. Hamami, and O. Yadid-Pecht, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs 53, 1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Fish and O. Yadid-Pecht, in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1408–1411.

Yang, D.

A. El Gamal, D. Yang, and B. Fowler, Proc. SPIE 3650, 2 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. (1)

S. Ay, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 5, 535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs (2)

A. Fish, S. Hamami, and O. Yadid-Pecht, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs 53, 1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Law, A. Bermak, and C. Shi, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs 58, 80 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. El Gamal, D. Yang, and B. Fowler, Proc. SPIE 3650, 2 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Catrysse, X. Liu, and A. El Gamal, Proc. SPIE 3965, 420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (1)

H. Mousazadeh, A. Keyhani, A. Javadi, H. Mobli, K. Abrinia, and A. Sharifi, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 13, 1800 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

C.-Y. Lee, P.-C. Chou, C.-M. Chiang, and C.-F. Lin, Sensors 9, 3875 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

P. Pissavin, J. Krebs, P. Lelong, P. Vidal, and R. Navoni, in Spacecraft Guidance, Navigation and Control Systems, Proceedings of the 3rd ESA International Conference (European Space Agency, 1997), Vol. 381, p. 611.

A. Fish and O. Yadid-Pecht, in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1408–1411.

S. Mobasser and C. C. Liebe, in International Federation of Automatic Control, St. Petersburg, Russia, June14–18, 2004.

F. Pineda and C. Arredondo, in 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 002905–002910.

S. Mobasser and C. Liebe, in Proceedings of 2003 IEEE Conference on Control Applications (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1483–1487.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure of the proposed CMOS light direction sensor shown in cross-section with shadowing by the metal baffle (top) and the current mirror circuits used to achieve digital output (bottom).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Setup for testing.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photomicrograph of the presented chip.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photocurrents of each diode at different angles under sunlight with light intensity of 85mW/cm2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Outputs of the flash ADC versus the angle of the incident light.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparing of the tested outputs with the ideal output of the self-powered ADC.

Equations (1)

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θmax=arctan(w/h).

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