Abstract

Structured illumination (SI), which is an imaging technique that is employed in a variety of fields, permits unique possibilities to suppress unwanted signal contributions that carry misguiding information such as out-of-focus light or multiply scattered light. So far SI has been applied mostly for averaged imaging or for imaging of slowly occurring events because it requires three acquisitions (subimages) to construct the final SI image. This prerequisite puts technological constraints on SI that make “instantaneous” imaging of fast transient processes (occurring on submicrosecond time scales) very challenging and expensive. Operating SI with fewer subimages generates errors in the form of residual lines that stretch across the image. Here, a new approach that circumvents this limiting factor is presented and experimentally demonstrated. By judiciously choosing the intensity modulation, it is possible to extract an SI image from two subimages only. This development will allow standard double-pulsed lasers and interline transfer CCD or scientific CMOS cameras to be used to acquire temporally frozen SI images of rapidly occurring processes as well as to boost the frame-rate of current SI video systems; a technical advancement that will benefit both macro- and microscopic imaging applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, Atomiz. Spr. 20, 337 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Wicker and R. Heintzmann, J. Opt. 12, 084010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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L. H. Schaefer, D. Schuster, and J. Schaffer, J. Microsc. 216, 165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 985 (2002).
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Aldén, M.

Barone, S.

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Berrocal, E.

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Bruno, F.

F. Bruno, G. Bianco, M. Muzzupappa, S. Barone, and A. V. Razionale, ISPRS J. Photogr. Remote Sens. 66, 508 (2011).
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Burton, D. R.

B. A. Rajoub, D. R. Burton, and M. J. Lalor, J. Opt. A 7, S368 (2005).
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Chu, K. K.

Cole, M. J.

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Davis, D. M.

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Ehn, A.

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D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

French, P. M. W.

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, M.

M. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heintzmann, R.

A. Jost and R. Heintzmann, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 43, 261 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Wicker and R. Heintzmann, J. Opt. 12, 084010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huldt, S.

Jost, A.

A. Jost and R. Heintzmann, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 43, 261 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Juškaitis, R.

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 22, 1905 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. K.

Kristensson, E.

Krzewina, L. G.

Lalor, M. J.

B. A. Rajoub, D. R. Burton, and M. J. Lalor, J. Opt. A 7, S368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lévêque-Fort, S.

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lever, M. J.

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D.

Linne, M.

Mertz, J.

Muzzupappa, M.

F. Bruno, G. Bianco, M. Muzzupappa, S. Barone, and A. V. Razionale, ISPRS J. Photogr. Remote Sens. 66, 508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Neil, M. A. A.

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 22, 1905 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, H.

Nordström, E.

Parsons-Karavassilis, D.

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rajoub, B. A.

B. A. Rajoub, D. R. Burton, and M. J. Lalor, J. Opt. A 7, S368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Razionale, A. V.

F. Bruno, G. Bianco, M. Muzzupappa, S. Barone, and A. V. Razionale, ISPRS J. Photogr. Remote Sens. 66, 508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richter, M.

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, Atomiz. Spr. 20, 337 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Linne, and M. Aldén, Opt. Express 16, 17870 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, L. H.

L. H. Schaefer, D. Schuster, and J. Schaffer, J. Microsc. 216, 165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, J.

L. H. Schaefer, D. Schuster, and J. Schaffer, J. Microsc. 216, 165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, D.

L. H. Schaefer, D. Schuster, and J. Schaffer, J. Microsc. 216, 165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, J.

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sucharov, L. O.

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

Webb, S. E. D.

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wicker, K.

K. Wicker and R. Heintzmann, J. Opt. 12, 084010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 22, 1905 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

A. Jost and R. Heintzmann, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 43, 261 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Atomiz. Spr. (1)

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, M. Richter, and M. Aldén, Atomiz. Spr. 20, 337 (2010).
[CrossRef]

ISPRS J. Photogr. Remote Sens. (1)

F. Bruno, G. Bianco, M. Muzzupappa, S. Barone, and A. V. Razionale, ISPRS J. Photogr. Remote Sens. 66, 508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (2)

M. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Schaefer, D. Schuster, and J. Schaffer, J. Microsc. 216, 165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 49, 985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

K. Wicker and R. Heintzmann, J. Opt. 12, 084010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

B. A. Rajoub, D. R. Burton, and M. J. Lalor, J. Opt. A 7, S368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Two-pulse SI (right column) generates residual lines (2ν) with a spatial frequency twice that of the ground-frequency. Thus, by increasing the ground-frequency, 1st, of the subimages (left column) the residuals become less apparent, and eventually, they reside at the border of the observable region where they are nearly indistinguishable. FT, Fourier transform.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Example of a two-pulse (2P) SI image in which the ground-frequency is ν¯=0.50, thus generating residuals exactly at the resolution limit. These unwanted fringes are easily removed by means of a low-pass filter (LPF), which, because of the carefully chosen ground-frequency, hardly affects the image quality. fc is the cutoff frequency.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison between two- and three-pulse (3P) planar SI (ensemble-averaged). The investigation shows that, for this particular sample, a too low ground-frequency leads to significant deviations between the two approaches. The similarity (coefficient of determination, R2) between the 2P and 3P images was calculated over the entire image. Besides each example, a cross section (indicated by the dashed line) is provided. Also included is a plot showing how the value of R2 changes as a function of ν¯ for the current sample.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison between single-shot conventional laser sheet imaging and instantaneous two-pulse planar SI imaging together with a schematic of the optical arrangement. A low-pass filter with a cutoff frequency of fc=0.45 was applied on the SI images, yet the loss of high spatial frequencies did not cause any evident distortion. On the contrary, finer details and sharper image gradients were observed in the SI cases thanks to the removal of the blur caused by multiply scattered photons. In the “off-axis” case, where a region behind the central axis of the hollow-cone spray was probed, the conventional laser sheet image clearly shows a signal in regions that were not directly illuminated. In contrast, with the two-pulse SI approach, the expected arc-like shape of the spray was restored.

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