Abstract

A mode interferometer consisting of a short section of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) fusion spliced to a standard single-mode optical fiber with localized perturbations is proposed for multiparameter sensing. In this sensing configuration, the parameter being sensed changes the visibility (an absolute parameter) of the interference pattern and also causes a shift (a relative parameter) to the interference pattern. To achieve this dual effect, a portion of the PCF is squeezed on localized regions with a serrated mechanical piece. In this manner, we introduce attenuation losses and effective refractive index changes to the interfering modes, hence, visibility changes and a shift to the interference pattern. Our device is suitable for monitoring diverse physical parameters, such as weight, lateral force, pressure, load, etc., with the advantage that compensation to temperature or power fluctuations is not required. Moreover, the sensor sensitivity can be adjusted in a simple manner.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. St. J. Russell, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araujo, and L. A. Ferreira, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 449 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. S. J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (7)

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. S. J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Qu, T. Brastaviceanu, F. Bergeron, J. Olesik, I. Pavlov, T. Ishigure, and M. Skorobogatiy, Appl. Opt. 52, 6344 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Xi, G. K. L. Wong, T. Weiss, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 38, 5401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, X. Dong, T. Li, C. C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, Opt. Commun. 303, 42 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Liang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Guo, S. Gao, and S. Yan, Opt. Lett. 38, 1071 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Cardenas-Sevilla, F. C. Fávero, and J. Villatoro, Sensors 13, 2349 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Sánchez, S. Orozco, A. V. Porta, and M. A. Ortiz, Mater. Chem. Phys. 139, 176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (5)

A. Bichler, S. Lecler, B. Serio, S. Fischer, and P. Pfeiffer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 2386 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazão, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. P. Shum, and X. Q. Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. J. Hu, J. L. Lim, M. Jiang, Y. Wang, F. Luan, P. P. Shum, H. Wei, and W. Tong, Opt. Lett. 37, 2283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. M. R. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, J. Sens. 2012, 598178 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Y. Zhou, W. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L.-Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Dong and E. J. Hao, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2332 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Opt. Express 15, 1491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

P. St. J. Russell, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu and P. Shum, Proc. SPIE 6025, 60250F (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

Ahn, T. J.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Araujo, F. M.

O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araujo, and L. A. Ferreira, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 449 (2008).

Badenes, G.

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Opt. Express 15, 1491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Baptista, J. M.

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazão, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bergeron, F.

Bichler, A.

Brastaviceanu, T.

Canning, J.

Cardenas-Sevilla, G. A.

G. A. Cardenas-Sevilla, F. C. Fávero, and J. Villatoro, Sensors 13, 2349 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C.

S. Zhang, X. Dong, T. Li, C. C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, Opt. Commun. 303, 42 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, W. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L.-Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

Y. Zhou, W. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L.-Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

Coviello, G.

Cubillas, A. M.

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. S. J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dinh, X. Q.

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. P. Shum, and X. Q. Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dong, B.

Dong, X.

S. Zhang, X. Dong, T. Li, C. C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, Opt. Commun. 303, 42 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, W. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L.-Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Etzold, B. J. M.

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. S. J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Euser, T. G.

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. S. J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fávero, F. C.

G. A. Cardenas-Sevilla, F. C. Fávero, and J. Villatoro, Sensors 13, 2349 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, L. A.

O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araujo, and L. A. Ferreira, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 449 (2008).

Finazzi, V.

G. Coviello, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, and V. Pruneri, Opt. Express 17, 21551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, S.

Frazao, O.

O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araujo, and L. A. Ferreira, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 449 (2008).

Frazão, O.

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazão, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gao, S.

Geng, P.

Gouveia, C.

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazão, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Groothoff, N.

Guo, J.

Han, T.

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. P. Shum, and X. Q. Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hao, E. J.

Hu, D. J. J.

Ishigure, T.

Jiang, M.

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. P. Shum, and X. Q. Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. J. Hu, J. L. Lim, M. Jiang, Y. Wang, F. Luan, P. P. Shum, H. Wei, and W. Tong, Opt. Lett. 37, 2283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jones, A. C.

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. S. J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jorge, P. A. S.

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazão, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kiryanov, A. V.

Lecler, S.

Lee, Y. L.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. P. Shum, and X. Q. Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

S. Zhang, X. Dong, T. Li, C. C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, Opt. Commun. 303, 42 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, X.

Lim, J. L.

Liu, W. J.

Liu, Y.

H. Liang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Guo, S. Gao, and S. Yan, Opt. Lett. 38, 1071 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. P. Shum, and X. Q. Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Amo, M.

A. M. R. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, J. Sens. 2012, 598178 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

Lyytikainen, K.

Martelli, C.

Minkovich, V. P.

Noh, Y.-C.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Olesik, J.

Orozco, S.

A. Sánchez, S. Orozco, A. V. Porta, and M. A. Ortiz, Mater. Chem. Phys. 139, 176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ortiz, M. A.

A. Sánchez, S. Orozco, A. V. Porta, and M. A. Ortiz, Mater. Chem. Phys. 139, 176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, I.

Pfeiffer, P.

Pinto, A. M. R.

A. M. R. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, J. Sens. 2012, 598178 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Porta, A. V.

A. Sánchez, S. Orozco, A. V. Porta, and M. A. Ortiz, Mater. Chem. Phys. 139, 176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

Qu, H.

Ran, Z. L.

Rao, Y. J.

Rindorf, L.

Russell, P. S. J.

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. S. J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Sadler, P. J.

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. S. J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, A.

A. Sánchez, S. Orozco, A. V. Porta, and M. A. Ortiz, Mater. Chem. Phys. 139, 176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araujo, and L. A. Ferreira, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 449 (2008).

Serio, B.

Shao, L.-Y.

Y. Zhou, W. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L.-Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shin, W.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

X. Yu and P. Shum, Proc. SPIE 6025, 60250F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P. P.

S. Zhang, X. Dong, T. Li, C. C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, Opt. Commun. 303, 42 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. J. J. Hu, J. L. Lim, M. Jiang, Y. Wang, F. Luan, P. P. Shum, H. Wei, and W. Tong, Opt. Lett. 37, 2283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. P. Shum, and X. Q. Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Sotskaya, L. I.

Sotsky, A. B.

Tong, W.

Unterkofler, S.

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. S. J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Villatoro, J.

G. A. Cardenas-Sevilla, F. C. Fávero, and J. Villatoro, Sensors 13, 2349 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Coviello, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, and V. Pruneri, Opt. Express 17, 21551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Opt. Express 15, 1491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

H. Liang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Guo, S. Gao, and S. Yan, Opt. Lett. 38, 1071 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. P. Shum, and X. Q. Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wasserscheid, P.

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. S. J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H.

Weiss, T.

Wong, G. K. L.

Wong, W. C.

Y. Zhou, W. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L.-Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. P. Shum, and X. Q. Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xi, X.

Yan, S.

Yu, B.-A.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

X. Yu and P. Shum, Proc. SPIE 6025, 60250F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, X. Dong, T. Li, C. C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, Opt. Commun. 303, 42 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Zhou, W.

Y. Zhou, W. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L.-Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, W. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L.-Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Z. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, S. Li, M. Jiang, P. P. Shum, and X. Q. Dinh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

A. M. Cubillas, S. Unterkofler, T. G. Euser, B. J. M. Etzold, A. C. Jones, P. J. Sadler, P. Wasserscheid, and P. S. J. Russell, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 8629 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

C. Gouveia, P. A. S. Jorge, J. M. Baptista, and O. Frazão, IEEE Sens. J. 12, 17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Sens. (1)

A. M. R. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, J. Sens. 2012, 598178 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araujo, and L. A. Ferreira, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 449 (2008).

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. Sánchez, S. Orozco, A. V. Porta, and M. A. Ortiz, Mater. Chem. Phys. 139, 176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

S. Zhang, X. Dong, T. Li, C. C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, Opt. Commun. 303, 42 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, Opt. Commun. 283, 2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, W. Zhou, C. C. Chan, W. C. Wong, L.-Y. Shao, J. Cheng, and X. Dong, Opt. Commun. 284, 5669 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

X. Yu and P. Shum, Proc. SPIE 6025, 60250F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

G. A. Cardenas-Sevilla, F. C. Fávero, and J. Villatoro, Sensors 13, 2349 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Drawings of the PCF interferometer: schematic representation of its interrogation and illustration of the mechanical piece to apply localized pressure on the device. The micrographs show details of the PCF–SMF junction and the PCF cross section. ASE, amplified spontaneous emission; FOC, fiber optic circulator; SMF, single-mode fiber; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer. Lf is the interferometer (or PCF) length.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reflection spectra of a PCF interferometer for weight between 0 and 500 g. The mechanical piece that squeezed the interferometer had Lp=1mm and Λ=7.5mm. The length of the interferometer was 5.1 cm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Visibility changes as a function of weight observed in a 5.1 cm long PCF interferometer for two values of Lp. The inset shows shift of the interference pattern versus weight. In all cases Λ=7.5mm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Visibility changes as a function of weight observed when the PCF interferometer was operated in reflection and transmission modes. The inset shows the reflection (dotted line) and transmission (solid line) spectra when weight was 0 g. In all cases Lp=1mm, Lf=5cm, and Λ=7.5mm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Visibility changes versus weight observed in the PCF interferometer when no attenuation and high attenuation were introduced into the SMF. The inset shows the reflection spectra for a weight of 0 g without attenuation, 100 g with an attenuation of 2 dB, and 300 g with an attenuation of 1 dB. In all cases, the parameters were Lf=5cm, Lp=1mm, and Λ=7.5mm.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IR=I1+I2+2(I1×I2)1/2cos(Δϕ).
V=10·log10[12(k)1/2/(1+k)],

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