Abstract

We report on the active stabilization of a Michelson interferometer at an arbitrary phase angle with a precision better than 1° at λ=632.8nm, which corresponds to a precision in the optical path difference between the two arms of less than 1 nm. The stabilization method is ditherless, and the error signal is computed from the spatial shift of the interference pattern of a reference laser, measured in real-time with a CCD array detector. We discuss the usefulness of this method for nanopositioning, optical interferometry, and quantum optical experiments.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2011 (2)

G. B. Xavier and J. P. von der Weid, Opt. Lett. 36, 1764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Jotzu, T. Bartley, H. B. Coldenstrod-Ronge, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsey, J. Modern Opt. 59, 42 (2011).

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

M. Totzeck, W. Ulrich, A. Göhnermeier, and W. Kaiser, Nat. Photonics 1, 629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

M. C. Barbosa, I. de Oliveira, and J. Frejlich, Opt. Commun. 201, 293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Marikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 146, 062308 (2002).

1999 (1)

M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, M. Barton, and S. Kawamura, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1993 (1)

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

Andresen, E. R.

Barbosa, E. A.

Barbosa, M. C.

M. C. Barbosa, I. de Oliveira, and J. Frejlich, Opt. Commun. 201, 293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bartley, T.

G. Jotzu, T. Bartley, H. B. Coldenstrod-Ronge, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsey, J. Modern Opt. 59, 42 (2011).

Barton, M.

M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, M. Barton, and S. Kawamura, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cescato, L.

Cho, S.-B.

Coldenstrod-Ronge, H. B.

G. Jotzu, T. Bartley, H. B. Coldenstrod-Ronge, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsey, J. Modern Opt. 59, 42 (2011).

Dandridge, A.

de Oliveira, I.

M. C. Barbosa, I. de Oliveira, and J. Frejlich, Opt. Commun. 201, 293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Riedmatten, H.

I. Marikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frejlich, J.

Freschi, A. A.

Gersen, H.

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

I. Marikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Göhnermeier, A.

M. Totzeck, W. Ulrich, A. Göhnermeier, and W. Kaiser, Nat. Photonics 1, 629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gray, M. B.

M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, M. Barton, and S. Kawamura, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 146, 062308 (2002).

Holzwarth, R.

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 146, 062308 (2002).

Jackson, D. A.

Javan, A.

Jiang, X.

Jotzu, G.

G. Jotzu, T. Bartley, H. B. Coldenstrod-Ronge, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsey, J. Modern Opt. 59, 42 (2011).

Kaiser, W.

M. Totzeck, W. Ulrich, A. Göhnermeier, and W. Kaiser, Nat. Photonics 1, 629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, S.

M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, M. Barton, and S. Kawamura, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

Kelly, M. J.

Korterik, J. P.

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamachari, V. V.

Kuipers, L.

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kurnit, N. A.

Lee, P. H.

Marikic, I.

I. Marikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martin, H.

McClelland, D. E.

M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, M. Barton, and S. Kawamura, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mendes, G. F.

Monchalin, J.-P.

Noh, T.-G.

Potma, E. O.

Priest, R.

Raymer, M. G.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Scarani, V.

I. Marikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. J.

G. Jotzu, T. Bartley, H. B. Coldenstrod-Ronge, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsey, J. Modern Opt. 59, 42 (2011).

Smithey, D. T.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Szöke, A.

Thomas, J. E.

Tittel, W.

I. Marikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Totzeck, M.

M. Totzeck, W. Ulrich, A. Göhnermeier, and W. Kaiser, Nat. Photonics 1, 629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tveten, A. B.

Udem, Th.

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 146, 062308 (2002).

Ulrich, W.

M. Totzeck, W. Ulrich, A. Göhnermeier, and W. Kaiser, Nat. Photonics 1, 629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

von der Weid, J. P.

Walmsey, I. A.

G. Jotzu, T. Bartley, H. B. Coldenstrod-Ronge, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsey, J. Modern Opt. 59, 42 (2011).

Winzer, P. J.

Xavier, G. B.

Zbinden, H.

I. Marikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Modern Opt. (1)

G. Jotzu, T. Bartley, H. B. Coldenstrod-Ronge, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsey, J. Modern Opt. 59, 42 (2011).

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Totzeck, W. Ulrich, A. Göhnermeier, and W. Kaiser, Nat. Photonics 1, 629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 146, 062308 (2002).

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. C. Barbosa, I. de Oliveira, and J. Frejlich, Opt. Commun. 201, 293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, M. Barton, and S. Kawamura, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

I. Marikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Interferometer setup. (b) Example of an actual (blue dotted) output waveform on the CCD camera, compared to the desired (red) waveform with the relative step function. δ is the error with respect to the target angle.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Interferometer output with and without the feedback as a function of the acquisition time. In the inset is reported the statistical distribution of the phase errors δ during the stabilization. (b) Output of the interferometer when moved in step-scan mode one pixel at time. The angle of the mirror M1 is such that one pixel on the CCD camera corresponds to about 0.8°.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Step scan measure in the double beam configuration. The black line represents the intensity of the He:Ne control laser on a single pixel of the CCD camera; the gray line represents the output of the IR beam, with constant phase over its cross section area, measured on a photodetector.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f(ϑ,φ)=b+Asin(ϑφ),
E(δ)=f(ϑ,φ)g(ϑ,φ0)dϑ,
E(δ)=4Asin(δ).

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