Abstract

We report on the fabrication of arsenic tri-sulfide chalcogenide strip waveguides on a sapphire substrate, suitable for guiding 0.55–5 μm wavelengths. Propagation losses measured using the Fabry–Perot resonator technique are 2.78dB/cm. The chalcogenide layer refractive index dispersion is evaluated by measuring the transmission as a function of wavelength prior to waveguide fabrication. Numerical simulations are used to compare between silica and sapphire substrates for mid-IR transmittance and to calculate the waveguide’s effective refractive index in a suggested design. The use of a low-loss sapphire substrate redefines the mid-IR boundaries of chalcogenide waveguides for linear and nonlinear applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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E. R. Shaaban, I. S. Yahia, and E. G. El-Metwally, Acta Phys. Pol. A 121, 628 (2012).

2011

2010

2008

M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, Opt. Express 16, 14938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2003

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. S. Sanghera, F. H. Kung, L. E. Busse, P. C. Pureza, and I. D. Aggrawal, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2198 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1985

R. Regener and W. Soher, Appl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. Swanepoel, J. Phys. E 16, 1214 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1953

Aggrawal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, F. H. Kung, L. E. Busse, P. C. Pureza, and I. D. Aggrawal, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2198 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (Wiley-Interscience2002).

Asher, W.

Atanackovic, P.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Bronner, W.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D.

Busse, L. E.

J. S. Sanghera, F. H. Kung, L. E. Busse, P. C. Pureza, and I. D. Aggrawal, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2198 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. Y.

Choi, D.-Y.

de Sterke, C. M.

Dobrovinskaya, E. R.

E. R. Dobrovinskaya, L. A. Litvinov, and V. Pischik, Sapphire: Material, Manufacturing, Applications (Springer, 2009).

Duvall, S. G.

Eggleton, B. J.

Elliott, S. R.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, Optical Nonlinearities in Chalcogenide Glasses and their Applications (Springer, 2007).

El-Metwally, E. G.

E. R. Shaaban, I. S. Yahia, and E. G. El-Metwally, Acta Phys. Pol. A 121, 628 (2012).

Frerichs, R.

Fuchs, F.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gai, X.

Grillet, C.

Han, T.

Hochberg, M.

Hudson, D.

Ilic, R.

Jackson, S. D.

Jonasz, M.

Kitamura, R.

Köhler, K.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kung, F. H.

J. S. Sanghera, F. H. Kung, L. E. Busse, P. C. Pureza, and I. D. Aggrawal, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2198 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lamont, M. R. E.

Li, F.

Litvinov, L. A.

E. R. Dobrovinskaya, L. A. Litvinov, and V. Pischik, Sapphire: Material, Manufacturing, Applications (Springer, 2009).

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

Madden, S. J.

Magi, E.

Mann, C.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manz, C.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moghe, Y.

Moss, D. J.

O’Brien, C.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Penkov, B.

Pilon, L.

Pischik, V.

E. R. Dobrovinskaya, L. A. Litvinov, and V. Pischik, Sapphire: Material, Manufacturing, Applications (Springer, 2009).

Prasad, A.

Pureza, P. C.

J. S. Sanghera, F. H. Kung, L. E. Busse, P. C. Pureza, and I. D. Aggrawal, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2198 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Raab, M.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rattunde, M.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Read, A.

Regener, R.

R. Regener and W. Soher, Appl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Romasew, E.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rösener, B.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

J. S. Sanghera, F. H. Kung, L. E. Busse, P. C. Pureza, and I. D. Aggrawal, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2198 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, N.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shaaban, E. R.

E. R. Shaaban, I. S. Yahia, and E. G. El-Metwally, Acta Phys. Pol. A 121, 628 (2012).

Shimabukuro, F.

C. Yeh and F. Shimabukuro, The Essence of Dielectric Waveguides (Springer, 2008).

Soher, W.

R. Regener and W. Soher, Appl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Spott, A.

Swanepoel, R.

R. Swanepoel, J. Phys. E 16, 1214 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tholl, H. D.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

Yahia, I. S.

E. R. Shaaban, I. S. Yahia, and E. G. El-Metwally, Acta Phys. Pol. A 121, 628 (2012).

Yang, Q.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C.

C. Yeh and F. Shimabukuro, The Essence of Dielectric Waveguides (Springer, 2008).

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, Optical Nonlinearities in Chalcogenide Glasses and their Applications (Springer, 2007).

Acta Phys. Pol. A

E. R. Shaaban, I. S. Yahia, and E. G. El-Metwally, Acta Phys. Pol. A 121, 628 (2012).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

R. Regener and W. Soher, Appl. Phys. B 36, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

J. S. Sanghera, F. H. Kung, L. E. Busse, P. C. Pureza, and I. D. Aggrawal, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2198 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. E

R. Swanepoel, J. Phys. E 16, 1214 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, Optical Nonlinearities in Chalcogenide Glasses and their Applications (Springer, 2007).

P. Klocek, ed., Handbook of Infrared Optical Materials (Marcel Dekker, 1991).

E. R. Dobrovinskaya, L. A. Litvinov, and V. Pischik, Sapphire: Material, Manufacturing, Applications (Springer, 2009).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (Wiley-Interscience2002).

C. Yeh and F. Shimabukuro, The Essence of Dielectric Waveguides (Springer, 2008).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simulations results for beam attenuation versus descrete wavelengths values of As2S3 2.5μm×10μm (height×width) cross-section dimensions waveguides, implemented on fused silica and sapphire substrates, surrounded by air. Inset: refractive index distribution of waveguide model.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission interference spectra of As2S3 2.5 μm thick layer deposited onto sapphire substrate. Maxima and minima curves are evaluated by parabolic interpolation of the peaks.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

As2S3 layer refractive index dispersion evaluated according to Swanepoel [14], in comparison to the bulk material dispersion, based on Klocek [5].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM images of arsenic tri-sulfide strip on sapphire substrate (a) waveguide facet and (b) sidewall view. The waveguide cross-section dimensions are 2.5μm×2μm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental arrangement. Left to right: tunable laser, tapered-lensed fiber for light coupling, As2S3 waveguides with various cross sections on sapphire substrate and a multimode fiber for collecting the transmitted light connected to a photoreciever.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Normalized transmitted power versus wavelength for 10 mm length As2S3 waveguide on a sapphire substrate at 2.5μm×10μm cross section.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Calculated effective refractive index of four different As2S3 waveguides’ cross sections on a sapphire substrate. Inset: fundamental mode intensity profile of TE and TM polarization for 5 μm wavelength at 2.5μm×10μm cross section. (b) Dispersion curves for TE and TM polarization states of the four waveguides.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

nl=[Bl+(Bl2ns2)1/2]1/2,
Bl=2nsTminTmaxTmin·Tmax+ns2+12.
loss=4.34L[ln(R)ln(R˜)],
R=(neff1neff+1)2,
R˜=1K(11K2),
K=ImaxImaxImax+Imax.
neff=nM+ΔnW.

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