Abstract

We report the first demonstration of a cavity optoelectromechanical system integrated monolithically with a high-efficiency germanium photodetector on a CMOS-compatible platform. Mechanical resonances are recorded from 0.177 to 2.003 GHz with quality factor up to 4810. These monolithically integrated devices have paved the way for a new category of on-chip optoelectronic components that take the advantage of the resonant properties of the mechanical element and enables new applications such as ultracompact microwave oscillators, optomechanical sensors, and phase shifters.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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M. Poot and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

P. H. Kim, C. Doolin, B. D. Hauer, A. J. R. MacDonald, M. R. Freeman, P. E. Barclay, and J. P. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. Davanco, V. Aksyuk, and K. Srinivasan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 223603 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Rath, S. Khasminskaya, C. Nebel, C. Wild, and W. H. P. Pernice, Nat. Commun. 4, 1690 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

C. Xiong, X. K. Sun, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 171111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Purdy, R. W. Peterson, P. L. Yu, and C. A. Regal, New J. Phys. 14, 115021 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Sun, X. F. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Jiang, X. Y. Lu, J. D. Zhang, and Q. Lin, Opt. Express 20, 15991 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Sun, J. J. Zheng, M. Poot, C. W. Wong, and H. X. Tang, Nano Lett. 12, 2299 (2012).

J. Chan, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 081115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Sun, X. F. Zhang, M. Poot, C. Xiong, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. T. K. Sauer, Z. Diao, M. R. Freeman, and W. K. Hiebert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fedeli, Opt. Express 20, 1096 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Fong, W. H. P. Pernice, M. Li, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 073112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Xie, S.-S. Li, Y.-W. Lin, Z. Ren, and C. T. C. Nguyen, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 55, 890 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. A. Truitt, J. B. Hertzberg, C. C. Huang, K. L. Ekinci, and K. C. Schwab, Nano Lett. 7, 120 (2007).

2003

X. M. H. Huang, C. A. Zorman, M. Mehregany, and M. L. Roukes, Nature 421, 496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996

Aksyuk, V.

Y. Liu, M. Davanco, V. Aksyuk, and K. Srinivasan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 223603 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Baker, C.

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barclay, P. E.

P. H. Kim, C. Doolin, B. D. Hauer, A. J. R. MacDonald, M. R. Freeman, P. E. Barclay, and J. P. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, A. C. Hryciw, and P. E. Barclay, “Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks,” arXiv:1309.6300 (2013).

Bhave, S. A.

S. Tallur, S. Sridaran, and S. A. Bhave, Opt. Express 19, 24522 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Sridaran and S. A. Bhave, “1.12  GHz opto-acoustic oscillator,” in 25th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2012), Paris, France (IEEE, 2012), pp. 664–667.

Bouwmeester, D.

Cassan, E.

Chan, J.

J. Chan, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 081115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J. E.

Davanco, M.

Y. Liu, M. Davanco, V. Aksyuk, and K. Srinivasan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 223603 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. P.

P. H. Kim, C. Doolin, B. D. Hauer, A. J. R. MacDonald, M. R. Freeman, P. E. Barclay, and J. P. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Diao, Z.

V. T. K. Sauer, Z. Diao, M. R. Freeman, and W. K. Hiebert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Doolin, C.

P. H. Kim, C. Doolin, B. D. Hauer, A. J. R. MacDonald, M. R. Freeman, P. E. Barclay, and J. P. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ducci, S.

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ekinci, K. L.

P. A. Truitt, J. B. Hertzberg, C. C. Huang, K. L. Ekinci, and K. C. Schwab, Nano Lett. 7, 120 (2007).

Favero, I.

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fong, J.

Fong, K. Y.

C. Xiong, X. K. Sun, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 171111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Sun, K. Y. Fong, C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Opt. Express 19, 22316 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Fong, W. H. P. Pernice, M. Li, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 073112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, M. R.

P. H. Kim, C. Doolin, B. D. Hauer, A. J. R. MacDonald, M. R. Freeman, P. E. Barclay, and J. P. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. T. K. Sauer, Z. Diao, M. R. Freeman, and W. K. Hiebert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J. M.

Hauer, B. D.

P. H. Kim, C. Doolin, B. D. Hauer, A. J. R. MacDonald, M. R. Freeman, P. E. Barclay, and J. P. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hertzberg, J. B.

P. A. Truitt, J. B. Hertzberg, C. C. Huang, K. L. Ekinci, and K. C. Schwab, Nano Lett. 7, 120 (2007).

Hiebert, W. K.

V. T. K. Sauer, Z. Diao, M. R. Freeman, and W. K. Hiebert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hill, J. T.

J. Chan, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 081115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hryciw, A. C.

M. Mitchell, A. C. Hryciw, and P. E. Barclay, “Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks,” arXiv:1309.6300 (2013).

Huang, C. C.

P. A. Truitt, J. B. Hertzberg, C. C. Huang, K. L. Ekinci, and K. C. Schwab, Nano Lett. 7, 120 (2007).

Huang, X. M. H.

X. M. H. Huang, C. A. Zorman, M. Mehregany, and M. L. Roukes, Nature 421, 496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeffrey, E.

Jiang, W. C.

Khasminskaya, S.

P. Rath, S. Khasminskaya, C. Nebel, C. Wild, and W. H. P. Pernice, Nat. Commun. 4, 1690 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P. H.

P. H. Kim, C. Doolin, B. D. Hauer, A. J. R. MacDonald, M. R. Freeman, P. E. Barclay, and J. P. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kleckner, D.

Kopp, C.

Kung, C.-C.

Lemaitre, A.

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leo, G.

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

K. Y. Fong, W. H. P. Pernice, M. Li, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 073112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.-S.

Y. Xie, S.-S. Li, Y.-W. Lin, Z. Ren, and C. T. C. Nguyen, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 55, 890 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lin, Q.

Lin, Y.-W.

Y. Xie, S.-S. Li, Y.-W. Lin, Z. Ren, and C. T. C. Nguyen, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 55, 890 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Lu, X. Y.

Luo, Y.

MacDonald, A. J. R.

P. H. Kim, C. Doolin, B. D. Hauer, A. J. R. MacDonald, M. R. Freeman, P. E. Barclay, and J. P. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

Marris-Morini, D.

Meenehan, S.

J. Chan, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 081115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mehregany, M.

X. M. H. Huang, C. A. Zorman, M. Mehregany, and M. L. Roukes, Nature 421, 496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M.

M. Mitchell, A. C. Hryciw, and P. E. Barclay, “Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks,” arXiv:1309.6300 (2013).

Nebel, C.

P. Rath, S. Khasminskaya, C. Nebel, C. Wild, and W. H. P. Pernice, Nat. Commun. 4, 1690 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, C. T. C.

Y. Xie, S.-S. Li, Y.-W. Lin, Z. Ren, and C. T. C. Nguyen, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 55, 890 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Osmond, J.

Painter, O.

J. Chan, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 081115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, B.

Pernice, W. H. P.

P. Rath, S. Khasminskaya, C. Nebel, C. Wild, and W. H. P. Pernice, Nat. Commun. 4, 1690 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Sun, K. Y. Fong, C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Opt. Express 19, 22316 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Fong, W. H. P. Pernice, M. Li, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 073112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, R. W.

T. P. Purdy, R. W. Peterson, P. L. Yu, and C. A. Regal, New J. Phys. 14, 115021 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Polzer, A.

Poot, M.

M. Poot and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Sun, J. J. Zheng, M. Poot, C. W. Wong, and H. X. Tang, Nano Lett. 12, 2299 (2012).

X. K. Sun, X. F. Zhang, M. Poot, C. Xiong, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Purdy, T. P.

T. P. Purdy, R. W. Peterson, P. L. Yu, and C. A. Regal, New J. Phys. 14, 115021 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Rath, P.

P. Rath, S. Khasminskaya, C. Nebel, C. Wild, and W. H. P. Pernice, Nat. Commun. 4, 1690 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Regal, C. A.

T. P. Purdy, R. W. Peterson, P. L. Yu, and C. A. Regal, New J. Phys. 14, 115021 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Z.

Y. Xie, S.-S. Li, Y.-W. Lin, Z. Ren, and C. T. C. Nguyen, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 55, 890 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roukes, M. L.

X. M. H. Huang, C. A. Zorman, M. Mehregany, and M. L. Roukes, Nature 421, 496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Safavi-Naeini, A. H.

J. Chan, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 081115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, V. T. K.

V. T. K. Sauer, Z. Diao, M. R. Freeman, and W. K. Hiebert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schwab, K. C.

P. A. Truitt, J. B. Hertzberg, C. C. Huang, K. L. Ekinci, and K. C. Schwab, Nano Lett. 7, 120 (2007).

Senellart, P.

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Sonin, P.

Sridaran, S.

S. Tallur, S. Sridaran, and S. A. Bhave, Opt. Express 19, 24522 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Sridaran and S. A. Bhave, “1.12  GHz opto-acoustic oscillator,” in 25th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2012), Paris, France (IEEE, 2012), pp. 664–667.

Srinivasan, K.

Y. Liu, M. Davanco, V. Aksyuk, and K. Srinivasan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 223603 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. K.

C. Xiong, X. K. Sun, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 171111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Sun, X. F. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Sun, J. J. Zheng, M. Poot, C. W. Wong, and H. X. Tang, Nano Lett. 12, 2299 (2012).

X. K. Sun, X. F. Zhang, M. Poot, C. Xiong, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Sun, K. Y. Fong, C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Opt. Express 19, 22316 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tallur, S.

Tang, H. X.

M. Poot and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Sun, X. F. Zhang, M. Poot, C. Xiong, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xiong, X. K. Sun, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 171111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Sun, X. F. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Sun, J. J. Zheng, M. Poot, C. W. Wong, and H. X. Tang, Nano Lett. 12, 2299 (2012).

X. K. Sun, K. Y. Fong, C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Opt. Express 19, 22316 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Fong, W. H. P. Pernice, M. Li, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 073112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thon, S. M.

Truitt, P. A.

P. A. Truitt, J. B. Hertzberg, C. C. Huang, K. L. Ekinci, and K. C. Schwab, Nano Lett. 7, 120 (2007).

Vivien, L.

Wild, C.

P. Rath, S. Khasminskaya, C. Nebel, C. Wild, and W. H. P. Pernice, Nat. Commun. 4, 1690 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

X. K. Sun, J. J. Zheng, M. Poot, C. W. Wong, and H. X. Tang, Nano Lett. 12, 2299 (2012).

Xie, Y.

Y. Xie, S.-S. Li, Y.-W. Lin, Z. Ren, and C. T. C. Nguyen, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 55, 890 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, C.

X. K. Sun, X. F. Zhang, M. Poot, C. Xiong, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xiong, X. K. Sun, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 171111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Sun, K. Y. Fong, C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Opt. Express 19, 22316 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X. S.

Yu, P. L.

T. P. Purdy, R. W. Peterson, P. L. Yu, and C. A. Regal, New J. Phys. 14, 115021 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. D.

Zhang, X. F.

X. K. Sun, X. F. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Sun, X. F. Zhang, M. Poot, C. Xiong, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J. J.

X. K. Sun, J. J. Zheng, M. Poot, C. W. Wong, and H. X. Tang, Nano Lett. 12, 2299 (2012).

Zimmermann, H.

Zorman, C. A.

X. M. H. Huang, C. A. Zorman, M. Mehregany, and M. L. Roukes, Nature 421, 496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Li, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Sun, X. F. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chan, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, and O. Painter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 081115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Sun, X. F. Zhang, M. Poot, C. Xiong, and H. X. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. T. K. Sauer, Z. Diao, M. R. Freeman, and W. K. Hiebert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Kim, C. Doolin, B. D. Hauer, A. J. R. MacDonald, M. R. Freeman, P. E. Barclay, and J. P. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Top-view optical microscopic image and angled-view scanning electron microscopic image (zoom-in) of a device. GC, grating coupler; DC, directional coupler; PD, germanium photodetector; Vac, applying an ac driving voltage. The red arrows indicate the direction of light flow in the photonic circuit. (b) Sketch of cross section showing the construction of the major components of the device (not to scale). PECVD, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Calibrated responsivity of an integrated germanium photodetector as a function of the applied bias to the p-n junction. The inset shows the measured photocurrent as a function of optical power to the photodetector at the wavelength of 1550 nm at a reverse bias of 1.0 V (green circle point). (b) Photocurrent extracted from the germanium photodetector (reverse bias 1.0 V) as a function of input light wavelength (input optical power 10dBm). The inset zooms in at an optical resonance, showing a fitted optical quality factor of 30,000.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Heterodyne measurement setup for characterizing the devices’ mechanical properties. TDL, tunable diode laser; FPC, fiber polarization controller; EOM, electro-optic modulator; DUT, device under test; PD, photodetector; BPF, bandpass filter; LPF, low-pass filter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Amplitude of the driven response signal from the heterodyne detection, zoomed near each mechanical modal frequency. (a) and (b) are the radial-contour modes of the ring resonator while (c)–(h) are the wine-glass modes of the ring resonator. (b), (d), (f), and (h) are the corresponding higher-radial-order modes of (a), (c), (e), and (g), respectively. The simulated modal displacement profiles are provided in the insets. The calibrated thermomechanical noise of the 177.06 MHz mode shown in the right inset of (a) demonstrates a displacement sensitivity of 1.25×1016m/Hz1/2. (f) is a plot of the response curves under several additional dc driving voltages to the device. (h) is a plot of the difference between the amplitude traces obtained under additional +1.0V and 1.0V dc driving voltages. The modal frequencies and fitted mechanical quality factors are summarized in Table 1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Properties of the Experimentally Identified Mechanical Modes of the Monolithically Integrated Cavity Nano-optoelectromechanical System

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