Abstract

Indium–tin–oxide nanowhiskers were employed as transparent electrodes in a liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter. Transmittance of the device was as high as 75%. Phase shift exceeding π/2 at 1.0 THz is achieved in a 500μm-thick cell. The driving voltage required for the device operating as a quarter-wave plate was as low as 17.68 V (rms), an improvement of nearly an order of magnitude over previous work.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

I. Chatzakis, P. Tassin, L. Luo, N.-H. Shen, L. Zhang, J. Wang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 043101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, H. Park, E. P. J. Parrott, H. P. Chan, and E. P. MacPherson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 677 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Yang, C.-M. Chang, P.-H. Chen, P. Yu, and C.-L. Pan, Opt. Express 21, 16670 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (5)

S. H. Lee and N. Y. Ha, Opt. Express 19, 21803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, and Z.-J. Wu, AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Chiang, C.-S. Yang, Y.-H. Yang, C.-L. Pan, and T.-J. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, Nanotechnology 22, 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Shi, C.-B. Huang, and C.-L. Pan, NPG Asia Mater. 3, 41 (2011).

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, Nano Lett. 9, 2610 (2009).

O. Paul, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, Opt. Express 17, 18590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, Nat. Photonics 3, 148 (2009).

C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, Opt. Express 17, 21250 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

C.-F. Hsieh, R.-P. Pan, T.-T. Tang, H.-L. Chen, and C.-L. Pan, Opt. Lett. 31, 1112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Wu, C.-F. Hsieh, T.-T. Tang, R.-P. Pan, and C.-L. Pan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1488 (2006).

2004 (1)

Al-Naib, I.

N. Vieweg, N. Born, I. Al-Naib, and M. Koch, J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves 33, 327 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, Nat. Photonics 3, 148 (2009).

Azad, A. K.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, Nat. Photonics 3, 148 (2009).

Beigang, R.

Booshehri, L. G.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, Nano Lett. 9, 2610 (2009).

Born, N.

N. Vieweg, N. Born, I. Al-Naib, and M. Koch, J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves 33, 327 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. P.

Z. Huang, H. Park, E. P. J. Parrott, H. P. Chan, and E. P. MacPherson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

Chang, C.-H.

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 677 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Yang, C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Lin, P. Yu, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, Opt. Express 20, A441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, Nanotechnology 22, 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-M.

Chang, W.-L.

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, Nanotechnology 22, 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-C.

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, Nanotechnology 22, 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chatzakis, I.

I. Chatzakis, P. Tassin, L. Luo, N.-H. Shen, L. Zhang, J. Wang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 043101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-Y.

Chen, H.-L.

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, Nat. Photonics 3, 148 (2009).

Chen, P.-H.

Chiang, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Chiang, C.-S. Yang, Y.-H. Yang, C.-L. Pan, and T.-J. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

Cich, M. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, Nat. Photonics 3, 148 (2009).

Gu, C.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

Ha, N. Y.

Hauge, R. H.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, Nano Lett. 9, 2610 (2009).

Hilton, D. J.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, Nano Lett. 9, 2610 (2009).

Hsieh, C.-F.

Hsu, M. H.

Hsu, M.-H.

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, Nanotechnology 22, 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S.-H.

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, Nanotechnology 22, 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, W.-C.

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, Nanotechnology 22, 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, and Z.-J. Wu, AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-B.

J.-W. Shi, C.-B. Huang, and C.-L. Pan, NPG Asia Mater. 3, 41 (2011).

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, H. Park, E. P. J. Parrott, H. P. Chan, and E. P. MacPherson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, T.-I.

Kawayama, I.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, Nano Lett. 9, 2610 (2009).

Koch, M.

N. Vieweg, N. Born, I. Al-Naib, and M. Koch, J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves 33, 327 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kono, J.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, Nano Lett. 9, 2610 (2009).

Koschny, T.

I. Chatzakis, P. Tassin, L. Luo, N.-H. Shen, L. Zhang, J. Wang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 043101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

Lee, E. S.

Lee, S. H.

Lin, C.-J.

Lin, M.-H.

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 677 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Yang, C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Lin, P. Yu, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, Opt. Express 20, A441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X.-W.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, and Z.-J. Wu, AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-F.

Luo, L.

I. Chatzakis, P. Tassin, L. Luo, N.-H. Shen, L. Zhang, J. Wang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 043101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, E. P.

Z. Huang, H. Park, E. P. J. Parrott, H. P. Chan, and E. P. MacPherson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, Nat. Photonics 3, 148 (2009).

Pan, C.-L.

C.-S. Yang, C.-M. Chang, P.-H. Chen, P. Yu, and C.-L. Pan, Opt. Express 21, 16670 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 677 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Yang, C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Lin, P. Yu, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, Opt. Express 20, A441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Shi, C.-B. Huang, and C.-L. Pan, NPG Asia Mater. 3, 41 (2011).

Y.-J. Chiang, C.-S. Yang, Y.-H. Yang, C.-L. Pan, and T.-J. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Yang, C.-J. Lin, R.-P. Pan, C.-T. Que, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and C.-L. Pan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1866 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-F. Hsieh, R.-P. Pan, T.-T. Tang, H.-L. Chen, and C.-L. Pan, Opt. Lett. 31, 1112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Wu, C.-F. Hsieh, T.-T. Tang, R.-P. Pan, and C.-L. Pan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1488 (2006).

C.-Y. Chen, C.-F. Hsieh, Y.-F. Lin, R.-P. Pan, and C.-L. Pan, Opt. Express 12, 2625 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pan, R.-P.

Park, H.

Z. Huang, H. Park, E. P. J. Parrott, H. P. Chan, and E. P. MacPherson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Parrott, E. P. J.

Z. Huang, H. Park, E. P. J. Parrott, H. P. Chan, and E. P. MacPherson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Paul, O.

Pint, C. L.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, Nano Lett. 9, 2610 (2009).

Que, C.-T.

Rahm, M.

Ren, L.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, Nano Lett. 9, 2610 (2009).

Rice, W. D.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, Nano Lett. 9, 2610 (2009).

Shen, C.-H.

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 677 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shen, N.-H.

I. Chatzakis, P. Tassin, L. Luo, N.-H. Shen, L. Zhang, J. Wang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 043101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.-W.

J.-W. Shi, C.-B. Huang, and C.-L. Pan, NPG Asia Mater. 3, 41 (2011).

Shieh, J.-M.

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 677 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

I. Chatzakis, P. Tassin, L. Luo, N.-H. Shen, L. Zhang, J. Wang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 043101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.-C.

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, Nanotechnology 22, 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takeya, K.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, Nano Lett. 9, 2610 (2009).

Tang, T.-T.

C.-F. Hsieh, R.-P. Pan, T.-T. Tang, H.-L. Chen, and C.-L. Pan, Opt. Lett. 31, 1112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Wu, C.-F. Hsieh, T.-T. Tang, R.-P. Pan, and C.-L. Pan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1488 (2006).

Tani, M.

Tassin, P.

I. Chatzakis, P. Tassin, L. Luo, N.-H. Shen, L. Zhang, J. Wang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 043101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, Nat. Photonics 3, 148 (2009).

Tonouchi, M.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, Nano Lett. 9, 2610 (2009).

Tsai, M. A.

Tseng, P.-C.

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, Nanotechnology 22, 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vieweg, N.

N. Vieweg, N. Born, I. Al-Naib, and M. Koch, J. Infrared Milli. Terahz Waves 33, 327 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wada, O.

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 677 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Yang, C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Lin, P. Yu, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, Opt. Express 20, A441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

I. Chatzakis, P. Tassin, L. Luo, N.-H. Shen, L. Zhang, J. Wang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 043101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, Nano Lett. 9, 2610 (2009).

Wu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Wu, C.-F. Hsieh, T.-T. Tang, R.-P. Pan, and C.-L. Pan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1488 (2006).

Wu, J.-B.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, and Z.-J. Wu, AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.-J.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, and Z.-J. Wu, AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

X.-C. Zhang and J. Xu, Introduction to THz Wave Photonics (Springer, 2010).

Yamamoto, K.

Yang, C. S.

Yang, C.-S.

C.-S. Yang, C.-M. Chang, P.-H. Chen, P. Yu, and C.-L. Pan, Opt. Express 21, 16670 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 677 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Yang, C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Lin, P. Yu, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, Opt. Express 20, A441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Chiang, C.-S. Yang, Y.-H. Yang, C.-L. Pan, and T.-J. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Yang, C.-J. Lin, R.-P. Pan, C.-T. Que, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and C.-L. Pan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1866 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.-H.

Y.-J. Chiang, C.-S. Yang, Y.-H. Yang, C.-L. Pan, and T.-J. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

Yen, T.-J.

Y.-J. Chiang, C.-S. Yang, Y.-H. Yang, C.-L. Pan, and T.-J. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 191909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

C.-S. Yang, M.-H. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-H. Shen, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 677 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Yang, C.-M. Chang, P.-H. Chen, P. Yu, and C.-L. Pan, Opt. Express 21, 16670 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Yang, C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Lin, P. Yu, O. Wada, and C.-L. Pan, Opt. Express 20, A441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, M.-H. Hsu, P.-C. Tseng, W.-L. Chang, W.-C. Sun, W.-C. Hsu, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, Nanotechnology 22, 095201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. S. Yang, M. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, and M. A. Tsai, Opt. Express 17, 21250 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

I. Chatzakis, P. Tassin, L. Luo, N.-H. Shen, L. Zhang, J. Wang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 043101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

X.-C. Zhang and J. Xu, Introduction to THz Wave Photonics (Springer, 2010).

Zheng, Z.-G.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, and Z.-J. Wu, AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

AIP Adv. (1)

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, and Z.-J. Wu, AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagrams of (a) ITO NWhs and (b) thin film-based LC phase shifter at terahertz frequency.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmittance of ITO thin film, NWhs, phase shifter based on ITO NWhs, and thin film.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Phase shift as a function of terahertz frequency for four driving voltages of phase shifter based on ITO NWhs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phase shift as a function of driving voltage for four frequencies of phase shifter based on ITO NWhs.

Equations (3)

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(k1cos2θ+k3sin2θ)×(dθdz)2Dz2(εsin2θ+εcos2θ)=constants,
0π2(1+ζsin2θmaxsin2α)(1+ρsin2θmax)(1sin2θmaxsin2α)(1+ρsin2θmaxsin2α)dα=π2VVth,
Δneff.Max=(cos2θmaxno2+sin2θmaxne2)12no,

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