Abstract

We report on the fabrication of laser-induced periodic surface structures in Cr films upon high repetition rate fs laser irradiation (up to 1 MHz, 500 fs, 1030 nm), employing beam scanning. Highly regular large-area (9cm2) gratings with a relative diffraction efficiency of 42% can be produced within less than 6 min. The ripple period at moderate and high fluences is 0.9 μm, with a small period of 0.5 μm appearing at lower energies. The role of the irradiation parameters on the characteristics of the laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) is studied and discussed in the frame of the models presently used. We have identified the polarization vector orientation with respect to the scan direction as a key parameter for the fabrication of high-quality, large-area LIPSS, which, for perpendicular orientation, allows the coherent extension of the sub-wavelength structure over macroscopic distances. The processing strategy is robust in terms of broad parameter windows and applicable to other materials featuring LIPSS.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and R. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 7022, 702202 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. U. Chakravarty, R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, J. A. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. D. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Bolle and S. Lazare, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3516 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Csete and Zs. Bor, Appl. Surf. Sci. 133, 5 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Y. Hwang, A. Y. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 123111 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. P. Colombier, F. Garrelie, N. Faure, S. Reynaud, M. Bounhalli, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, and F. Pigeon, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 024902 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. J. F. Young, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 30, 2001 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, M. Neumeier, M. Epple, H. Zimmermann, and F. Stracke, Opt. Lett. 36, 229 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Öktem, I. Pavlov, S. Ilday, H. Kalaycıoglu, A. Rybak, S. Yavas, M. Erdogan, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 7, 897 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Tang, J. Yang, B. Zhao, M. Wang, and X. Zhu, Opt. Express 20, 25826 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Hou, Y. Huo, P. Xiong, Y. Zhang, S. Zhang, T. Jia, Z. Sun, J. Qiu, and Z. Xu, J. Phys. D 44, 505401 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Wang and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251914 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Hohlfeld, J. Güdde, and E. Matthias, Appl. Phys. A 69, S99 (1999).
  21. J. Hohlfeld, S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, Chem. Phys. 251, 237 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

B. Öktem, I. Pavlov, S. Ilday, H. Kalaycıoglu, A. Rybak, S. Yavas, M. Erdogan, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 7, 897 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

Y. Tang, J. Yang, B. Zhao, M. Wang, and X. Zhu, Opt. Express 20, 25826 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Colombier, F. Garrelie, N. Faure, S. Reynaud, M. Bounhalli, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, and F. Pigeon, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 024902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

S. Hou, Y. Huo, P. Xiong, Y. Zhang, S. Zhang, T. Jia, Z. Sun, J. Qiu, and Z. Xu, J. Phys. D 44, 505401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Chakravarty, R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, J. A. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. D. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, M. Neumeier, M. Epple, H. Zimmermann, and F. Stracke, Opt. Lett. 36, 229 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

T. Y. Hwang, A. Y. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 123111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, Phys. Rev. B 79, 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and R. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 7022, 702202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Wang and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Hohlfeld, S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, Chem. Phys. 251, 237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Hohlfeld, J. Güdde, and E. Matthias, Appl. Phys. A 69, S99 (1999).

1998 (1)

M. Csete and Zs. Bor, Appl. Surf. Sci. 133, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Bolle and S. Lazare, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3516 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. F. Young, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 30, 2001 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

J. Young, J. Preston, H. Van Driel, and J. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
[CrossRef]

F. Keilmann and Y. H. Bai, Appl. Phys. A 29, 9 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Audouard, E.

J. P. Colombier, F. Garrelie, N. Faure, S. Reynaud, M. Bounhalli, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, and F. Pigeon, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 024902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Babu, M.

U. Chakravarty, R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, J. A. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. D. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y. H.

F. Keilmann and Y. H. Bai, Appl. Phys. A 29, 9 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bolle, M.

M. Bolle and S. Lazare, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3516 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bor, Zs.

M. Csete and Zs. Bor, Appl. Surf. Sci. 133, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bounhalli, M.

J. P. Colombier, F. Garrelie, N. Faure, S. Reynaud, M. Bounhalli, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, and F. Pigeon, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 024902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chakera, J. A.

U. Chakravarty, R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, J. A. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. D. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chakravarty, U.

U. Chakravarty, R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, J. A. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. D. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Colombier, J. P.

J. P. Colombier, F. Garrelie, N. Faure, S. Reynaud, M. Bounhalli, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, and F. Pigeon, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 024902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, U.

J. Hohlfeld, S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, Chem. Phys. 251, 237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Csete, M.

M. Csete and Zs. Bor, Appl. Surf. Sci. 133, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dörr, D.

Epple, M.

Erdogan, M.

B. Öktem, I. Pavlov, S. Ilday, H. Kalaycıoglu, A. Rybak, S. Yavas, M. Erdogan, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 7, 897 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Faure, N.

J. P. Colombier, F. Garrelie, N. Faure, S. Reynaud, M. Bounhalli, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, and F. Pigeon, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 024902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ganeev, R. A.

U. Chakravarty, R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, J. A. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. D. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Garrelie, F.

J. P. Colombier, F. Garrelie, N. Faure, S. Reynaud, M. Bounhalli, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, and F. Pigeon, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 024902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gottmann, J.

J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and R. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 7022, 702202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Güdde, J.

J. Hohlfeld, S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, Chem. Phys. 251, 237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Hohlfeld, J. Güdde, and E. Matthias, Appl. Phys. A 69, S99 (1999).

Guo, C.

T. Y. Hwang, A. Y. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 123111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, P. D.

U. Chakravarty, R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, J. A. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. D. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hashida, M.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, Phys. Rev. B 79, 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hohlfeld, J.

J. Hohlfeld, S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, Chem. Phys. 251, 237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Hohlfeld, J. Güdde, and E. Matthias, Appl. Phys. A 69, S99 (1999).

Horn, A.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hou, S.

S. Hou, Y. Huo, P. Xiong, Y. Zhang, S. Zhang, T. Jia, Z. Sun, J. Qiu, and Z. Xu, J. Phys. D 44, 505401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huo, Y.

S. Hou, Y. Huo, P. Xiong, Y. Zhang, S. Zhang, T. Jia, Z. Sun, J. Qiu, and Z. Xu, J. Phys. D 44, 505401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, T. Y.

T. Y. Hwang, A. Y. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 123111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F. Ö.

B. Öktem, I. Pavlov, S. Ilday, H. Kalaycıoglu, A. Rybak, S. Yavas, M. Erdogan, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 7, 897 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, S.

B. Öktem, I. Pavlov, S. Ilday, H. Kalaycıoglu, A. Rybak, S. Yavas, M. Erdogan, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 7, 897 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jähnke, V.

J. Hohlfeld, S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, Chem. Phys. 251, 237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jia, T.

S. Hou, Y. Huo, P. Xiong, Y. Zhang, S. Zhang, T. Jia, Z. Sun, J. Qiu, and Z. Xu, J. Phys. D 44, 505401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kalaycioglu, H.

B. Öktem, I. Pavlov, S. Ilday, H. Kalaycıoglu, A. Rybak, S. Yavas, M. Erdogan, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 7, 897 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

F. Keilmann and Y. H. Bai, Appl. Phys. A 29, 9 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kreutz, E. W.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lazare, S.

M. Bolle and S. Lazare, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3516 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Le Harzic, R.

Matthias, E.

J. Hohlfeld, S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, Chem. Phys. 251, 237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Hohlfeld, J. Güdde, and E. Matthias, Appl. Phys. A 69, S99 (1999).

Naik, P. A.

U. Chakravarty, R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, J. A. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. D. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Namba, S.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, Phys. Rev. B 79, 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neumeier, M.

Okamuro, K.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, Phys. Rev. B 79, 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Öktem, B.

B. Öktem, I. Pavlov, S. Ilday, H. Kalaycıoglu, A. Rybak, S. Yavas, M. Erdogan, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 7, 897 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, I.

B. Öktem, I. Pavlov, S. Ilday, H. Kalaycıoglu, A. Rybak, S. Yavas, M. Erdogan, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 7, 897 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pigeon, F.

J. P. Colombier, F. Garrelie, N. Faure, S. Reynaud, M. Bounhalli, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, and F. Pigeon, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 024902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Preston, J.

J. Young, J. Preston, H. Van Driel, and J. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Preston, J. S.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

S. Hou, Y. Huo, P. Xiong, Y. Zhang, S. Zhang, T. Jia, Z. Sun, J. Qiu, and Z. Xu, J. Phys. D 44, 505401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, S.

J. P. Colombier, F. Garrelie, N. Faure, S. Reynaud, M. Bounhalli, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, and F. Pigeon, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 024902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rybak, A.

B. Öktem, I. Pavlov, S. Ilday, H. Kalaycıoglu, A. Rybak, S. Yavas, M. Erdogan, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 7, 897 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sakabe, S.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, Phys. Rev. B 79, 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, D.

Siegman, A. E.

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J.

J. Young, J. Preston, H. Van Driel, and J. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. F. Young, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 30, 2001 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

J. P. Colombier, F. Garrelie, N. Faure, S. Reynaud, M. Bounhalli, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, and F. Pigeon, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 024902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stracke, F.

Sun, Z.

S. Hou, Y. Huo, P. Xiong, Y. Zhang, S. Zhang, T. Jia, Z. Sun, J. Qiu, and Z. Xu, J. Phys. D 44, 505401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

Tokita, S.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, Phys. Rev. B 79, 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Driel, H.

J. Young, J. Preston, H. Van Driel, and J. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

J. F. Young, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 30, 2001 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Vorobyev, A. Y.

T. Y. Hwang, A. Y. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 123111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R.

J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and R. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 7022, 702202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Wellershoff, S.-S.

J. Hohlfeld, S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, Chem. Phys. 251, 237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Hohlfeld, J. Güdde, and E. Matthias, Appl. Phys. A 69, S99 (1999).

Wortmann, D.

J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and R. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 7022, 702202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, P.

S. Hou, Y. Huo, P. Xiong, Y. Zhang, S. Zhang, T. Jia, Z. Sun, J. Qiu, and Z. Xu, J. Phys. D 44, 505401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

S. Hou, Y. Huo, P. Xiong, Y. Zhang, S. Zhang, T. Jia, Z. Sun, J. Qiu, and Z. Xu, J. Phys. D 44, 505401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Yavas, S.

B. Öktem, I. Pavlov, S. Ilday, H. Kalaycıoglu, A. Rybak, S. Yavas, M. Erdogan, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 7, 897 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

J. Young, J. Preston, H. Van Driel, and J. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

J. F. Young, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 30, 2001 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Hou, Y. Huo, P. Xiong, Y. Zhang, S. Zhang, T. Jia, Z. Sun, J. Qiu, and Z. Xu, J. Phys. D 44, 505401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

S. Hou, Y. Huo, P. Xiong, Y. Zhang, S. Zhang, T. Jia, Z. Sun, J. Qiu, and Z. Xu, J. Phys. D 44, 505401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B.

Zhu, X.

Zimmermann, H.

Appl. Phys. A (2)

F. Keilmann and Y. H. Bai, Appl. Phys. A 29, 9 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Hohlfeld, J. Güdde, and E. Matthias, Appl. Phys. A 69, S99 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Y. Hwang, A. Y. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 123111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

M. Csete and Zs. Bor, Appl. Surf. Sci. 133, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

J. Hohlfeld, S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, Chem. Phys. 251, 237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

J. P. Colombier, F. Garrelie, N. Faure, S. Reynaud, M. Bounhalli, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, and F. Pigeon, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 024902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bolle and S. Lazare, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3516 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Chakravarty, R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, J. A. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. D. Gupta, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084347 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

S. Hou, Y. Huo, P. Xiong, Y. Zhang, S. Zhang, T. Jia, Z. Sun, J. Qiu, and Z. Xu, J. Phys. D 44, 505401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Öktem, I. Pavlov, S. Ilday, H. Kalaycıoglu, A. Rybak, S. Yavas, M. Erdogan, and F. Ö. Ilday, Nat. Photonics 7, 897 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, Phys. Rev. B 79, 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Young, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 30, 2001 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Young, J. Preston, H. Van Driel, and J. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and R. Wagner, Proc. SPIE 7022, 702202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Color photograph of a LIPSS-based diffraction grating written in a Cr film. (b) Optical micrograph of a zoomed region. The double-headed arrow indicates the laser polarization (E-vector) direction and the scan principle and direction (“S”) are indicated below. The inset in (b) shows the 2D FFT image of the micrograph.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical micrographs of LIPSS gratings written with the scan direction S (a) parallel and (b) perpendicular to the ripples.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

AFM measurements of gratings written with different energies (a) 1.95 μJ, (b) 1.3 μJ. The other processing parameters are: νrep=250kHz, v=1.5m/s, d=2μm, and horizontal scanning. The false color scale is 0 (black)–570 nm (white) in (a) and 0–410 nm in (b). (c) Corresponding vertical depth profiles.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Influence of the pulse energy/peak fluence and processing parameters (laser repetition rate, scan speed, step size, and pulse dose) on the grating period for vertical scanning and horizontal polarization.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Topography map of the border of a laser-written grating, showing the sharp transition and depth of the structure. The lateral resolution is insufficient to resolve the ripples.

Equations (1)

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Lc=(128π)1/8(CiAeTm)1/4(Kγ)1/2

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