Abstract

In ultrabroadband terahertz electro-optic sampling (EOS), spectral filtering of the gate pulse can strongly reduce the quantum noise while the signal level is only weakly affected. The concept is tested for phase-matched electro-optic detection of field transients centered at 45 THz with 12 fs near-infrared gate pulses in AgGaS2. Our new approach increases the experimental signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 3 compared to standard EOS. Under certain conditions an improvement factor larger than 5 is predicted by our theoretical analysis.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 43, 237 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, Nat. Photonics 7, 680 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

K. Moon, Y. Do, M. Lim, G. Lee, H. Kang, K.-S. Park, and H. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Porer, J.-M. Ménard, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Zanotto, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and A. Tredicucci, Phys. Rev. B 85, 081302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. Darmo, D. Dietze, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Tonouchi, Nat. Photonics 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Ciuti, G. Bastard, and I. Carusotto, Phys. Rev. B 72, 115303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

1995

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988

P. Smith, D. Auston, and M. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. Valdmanis and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 69 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, R. K. Route, and R. S. Feigelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 313 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Adler, F.

Anappara, A. A.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ashida, M.

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
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Auston, D.

P. Smith, D. Auston, and M. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
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Bartels, L.

Bastard, G.

C. Ciuti, G. Bastard, and I. Carusotto, Phys. Rev. B 72, 115303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baum, P.

Beutter, M.

Biasiol, G.

M. Porer, J.-M. Ménard, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Zanotto, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and A. Tredicucci, Phys. Rev. B 85, 081302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, F.

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 43, 237 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bonn, M.

Bonvalet, A.

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
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Byer, R. L.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, R. K. Route, and R. S. Feigelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 313 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Carusotto, I.

C. Ciuti, G. Bastard, and I. Carusotto, Phys. Rev. B 72, 115303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ciuti, C.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Ciuti, G. Bastard, and I. Carusotto, Phys. Rev. B 72, 115303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Darmo, J.

J. Darmo, D. Dietze, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

De Liberato, S.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Degl’Innocenti, R.

M. Porer, J.-M. Ménard, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Zanotto, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and A. Tredicucci, Phys. Rev. B 85, 081302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dietze, D.

J. Darmo, D. Dietze, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y.

K. Moon, Y. Do, M. Lim, G. Lee, H. Kang, K.-S. Park, and H. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Doi, A.

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 43, 237 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

P. W. Milonni and J. H. Eberly, Laser Physics (Wiley, 2010).

Eckardt, R. C.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, R. K. Route, and R. S. Feigelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 313 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. X.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, R. K. Route, and R. S. Feigelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 313 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Feigelson, R. S.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, R. K. Route, and R. S. Feigelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 313 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

Grischkowsky, D.

Günter, G.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, H.

K. Moon, Y. Do, M. Lim, G. Lee, H. Kang, K.-S. Park, and H. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hees, J.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

Hendry, E.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

M. Porer, J.-M. Ménard, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Zanotto, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and A. Tredicucci, Phys. Rev. B 85, 081302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, F. Adler, A. Leitenstorfer, M. Beutter, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, Opt. Lett. 28, 2118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kampfrath, T.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, Nat. Photonics 7, 680 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.

K. Moon, Y. Do, M. Lim, G. Lee, H. Kang, K.-S. Park, and H. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Knoesel, E.

Kübler, C.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.

K. Moon, Y. Do, M. Lim, G. Lee, H. Kang, K.-S. Park, and H. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

M. Porer, J.-M. Ménard, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Zanotto, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and A. Tredicucci, Phys. Rev. B 85, 081302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, F. Adler, A. Leitenstorfer, M. Beutter, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, Opt. Lett. 28, 2118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lim, M.

K. Moon, Y. Do, M. Lim, G. Lee, H. Kang, K.-S. Park, and H. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. L.

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Martl, M.

J. Darmo, D. Dietze, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, E.

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ménard, J.-M.

M. Porer, J.-M. Ménard, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Zanotto, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and A. Tredicucci, Phys. Rev. B 85, 081302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Milonni, P. W.

P. W. Milonni and J. H. Eberly, Laser Physics (Wiley, 2010).

Moon, K.

K. Moon, Y. Do, M. Lim, G. Lee, H. Kang, K.-S. Park, and H. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

J. Valdmanis and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 69 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, M.

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

Nelson, K. A.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, Nat. Photonics 7, 680 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Noack, F.

F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and F. Noack, Opt. Commun. 185, 177 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M.

P. Smith, D. Auston, and M. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-S.

K. Moon, Y. Do, M. Lim, G. Lee, H. Kang, K.-S. Park, and H. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and F. Noack, Opt. Commun. 185, 177 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Porer, M.

M. Porer, J.-M. Ménard, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Zanotto, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and A. Tredicucci, Phys. Rev. B 85, 081302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reider, G. A.

Riedle, E.

Rotermund, F.

F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and F. Noack, Opt. Commun. 185, 177 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Route, R. K.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, R. K. Route, and R. S. Feigelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 313 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Scheu, R.

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sell, A.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

Smith, P.

P. Smith, D. Auston, and M. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sorba, L.

M. Porer, J.-M. Ménard, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Zanotto, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and A. Tredicucci, Phys. Rev. B 85, 081302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, Nat. Photonics 7, 680 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 43, 237 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 43, 237 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, Nat. Photonics 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

M. Porer, J.-M. Ménard, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Zanotto, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and A. Tredicucci, Phys. Rev. B 85, 081302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tübel, S.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ulbricht, R.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 543 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

J. Darmo, D. Dietze, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J.

J. Valdmanis and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 69 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Weling, A. S.

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zanotto, S.

M. Porer, J.-M. Ménard, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, R. Degl’Innocenti, S. Zanotto, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and A. Tredicucci, Phys. Rev. B 85, 081302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, and K. Tanaka, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 43, 237 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Moon, Y. Do, M. Lim, G. Lee, H. Kang, K.-S. Park, and H. Han, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Darmo, D. Dietze, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, R. K. Route, and R. S. Feigelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 313 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. Smith, D. Auston, and M. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Valdmanis and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 69 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Mater.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

M. Tonouchi, Nat. Photonics 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, Nat. Photonics 7, 680 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nature

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Nature 458, 178 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and F. Noack, Opt. Commun. 185, 177 (2000).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) EOS setup consisting of a nonlinear crystal (NLC) and an ellipsometer [λ/4 plate; Wollaston prism (WP); photodiodes (PDs)]. Black waveform: THz field transient. The nonlinear optical interaction of the linearly polarized incident gate (red pulse) with the THz wave generates new frequency components at perpedicular polarization (blue pulse), which induces an elliptical polarization of the gate (indicated by the red ellipse). For frequency postfiltered EOS, a spectral filter (SF) is inserted behind the NLC. (b), (c) Schematic spectra and polarization directions of the incident gate pulse (red) (centered at νg) and of the sum frequency photons (blue) if the THz frequency νTHz is small (b) and comparable (c) to the bandwidth of the gate spectrum δg. The EO signal is located at the overlap of both spectra (gray shaded area).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

EOS in the case of SFG and νTHzδg. (a) Solid curves: schematic amplitude spectra of the THz pulses (black), the incident NIR gate pulses (red), and the sum frequency replica of the gate spectrum (blue) for a given νTHz. The hatching direction indicates the polarization direction in typical phase-matching geometries. Interference of the gate spectrum and its replica in the region of their spectral overlap (shaded area) yields elliptical polarization necessary for a field-sensitive EO signal. (b) Spectrally integrated EO signal for νTHz (blue curve) and shot noise level (orange dotted curve) as a function of the cut-on frequency of the HP SF, as calculated with the model described in the text. Cyan line: normalized ratio between signal and shot noise.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Amplitude spectrum of the incident NIR laser pulses used for OR and EOS. Black curve: experimental data. Red dotted curve: Gaussian fit. Arrows at (ii) and (iii) indicate the cut-on frequencies of the standard commercial HP filters used in the experiment. (b) Multiterahertz field transient recorded with phase-matched EOS in AGS employing (i) no spectral filtering or (ii) HP filtering with a cut-on frequency of 375 THz, and (iii) 390 THz, respectively. For better visibility of the noise floor, a very weak THz signal is studied. The panel on the left magnifies the amplitude in the shaded time window by a factor of 6. (c) Linear amplitude spectrum of the unattenuated THz transients.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

2D map of the calculated sensitivity S/ΔS of spectrally postfiltered EOS for the SFG process discussed in the text. The scale is normalized to the sensitivity obtained for a static electric field without SF. The abscissa corresponds to the THz frequency νTHz normalized to the gate bandwidth δg. The ordinate represents the cut-on frequency of the HP filter, νHP, relative to the center frequency of the gate pulse, νg, normalized to δg. The region below the vertical scale break shows the sensitivity without SF. Contour lines are spaced by a factor of 1.2. The model holds for δgνg and η=1×104. The coordinates corresponding to our experiment with νHP=390THz are indicated with a black cross. An increase of S/ΔS by more than a factor of 5 can be obtained for configurations located in the purple shaded region.

Equations (2)

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SATHz(νTHz)νHPνA(ν)A(ννTHz)dν.
ΔSνHP((1η)|A(ν)|2+η|A(ννTHz)|2)dν.

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