Abstract

We report on the development of a doubly weighted Gerchberg–Saxton algorithm (DWGS) to enable generation of uniform beamlet arrays with a spatial light modulator (SLM) for use in multiphoton multifocal imaging applications. The algorithm incorporates the WGS algorithm as well as feedback of fluorescence signals from the sample measured with a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector array. This technique compensates for issues associated with nonuniform illumination onto the SLM, the effects due to aberrations and the variability in gain between detectors within the SPAD array to generate a uniformly illuminated multiphoton fluorescence image. We demonstrate the use of the DWGS with a number of beamlet array patterns to image muscle fibers of a 5-day-old fixed zebrafish larvae.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2010 (1)

2008 (1)

V. Nikolenko, B. O. Watson, R. Araya, A. Woodruff, D. S. Peterka, and R. Yuste, Front. Neural Circuits 2, 5 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

T. Nielsen, M. Frick, D. Hellweg, and P. Andresen, J. Microsc. 201, 368 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Buist, M. Müller, J. Squier, and G. Brakenhoff, J Microsc. 192, 217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Bewersdorf, R. Pick, and S. W. Hell, Opt. Lett. 23, 655 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. Gerchberg, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Ando, T.

Andresen, P.

T. Nielsen, M. Frick, D. Hellweg, and P. Andresen, J. Microsc. 201, 368 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Antolini, R.

Araya, R.

V. Nikolenko, B. O. Watson, R. Araya, A. Woodruff, D. S. Peterka, and R. Yuste, Front. Neural Circuits 2, 5 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bewersdorf, J.

Booth, M. J.

Borghetti, F.

J. Richardson, R. Walker, L. Grant, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, E. Charbon, M. Gersbach, and R. K. Henderson, in Proceedings of IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (IEEE, 1009), pp. 77–80.

Brakenhoff, G.

A. Buist, M. Müller, J. Squier, and G. Brakenhoff, J Microsc. 192, 217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buist, A.

A. Buist, M. Müller, J. Squier, and G. Brakenhoff, J Microsc. 192, 217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Charbon, E.

J. Richardson, R. Walker, L. Grant, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, E. Charbon, M. Gersbach, and R. K. Henderson, in Proceedings of IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (IEEE, 1009), pp. 77–80.

Choudhury, A.

Cooper, J.

Courtial, J.

J. Leach, K. Wulff, G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Courtial, L. Thomson, G. Gibson, K. Karunwi, J. Cooper, Z. J. Laczik, and M. Padgett, Appl. Opt. 45, 897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Spalding, J. Courtial, and R. Di Leonardo, in Structured Light and Its Applications, D. L. Andrews, ed. (Academic, 2008) pp. 139–168.

Di Leonardo, R.

R. Di Leonardo, F. Ianni, and G. Ruocco, Opt. Express 15, 1913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Spalding, J. Courtial, and R. Di Leonardo, in Structured Light and Its Applications, D. L. Andrews, ed. (Academic, 2008) pp. 139–168.

Frick, M.

T. Nielsen, M. Frick, D. Hellweg, and P. Andresen, J. Microsc. 201, 368 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Froner, E.

Gerchberg, R.

R. Gerchberg, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Gersbach, M.

J. Richardson, R. Walker, L. Grant, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, E. Charbon, M. Gersbach, and R. K. Henderson, in Proceedings of IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (IEEE, 1009), pp. 77–80.

Gibson, G.

Grant, L.

J. Richardson, R. Walker, L. Grant, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, E. Charbon, M. Gersbach, and R. K. Henderson, in Proceedings of IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (IEEE, 1009), pp. 77–80.

Hell, S. W.

Hellweg, D.

T. Nielsen, M. Frick, D. Hellweg, and P. Andresen, J. Microsc. 201, 368 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, R. K.

J. Richardson, R. Walker, L. Grant, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, E. Charbon, M. Gersbach, and R. K. Henderson, in Proceedings of IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (IEEE, 1009), pp. 77–80.

Ianni, F.

Inoue, T.

Jesacher, A.

Jordan, P.

Karunwi, K.

Laczik, Z. J.

Leach, J.

Matsumoto, N.

Müller, M.

A. Buist, M. Müller, J. Squier, and G. Brakenhoff, J Microsc. 192, 217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, T.

T. Nielsen, M. Frick, D. Hellweg, and P. Andresen, J. Microsc. 201, 368 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nikolenko, V.

V. Nikolenko, B. O. Watson, R. Araya, A. Woodruff, D. S. Peterka, and R. Yuste, Front. Neural Circuits 2, 5 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohtake, Y.

Padgett, M.

Pavone, F. S.

Peterka, D. S.

V. Nikolenko, B. O. Watson, R. Araya, A. Woodruff, D. S. Peterka, and R. Yuste, Front. Neural Circuits 2, 5 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pick, R.

Richardson, J.

J. Richardson, R. Walker, L. Grant, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, E. Charbon, M. Gersbach, and R. K. Henderson, in Proceedings of IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (IEEE, 1009), pp. 77–80.

Ruocco, G.

Sacconi, L.

Sinclair, G.

Spalding, G. C.

G. C. Spalding, J. Courtial, and R. Di Leonardo, in Structured Light and Its Applications, D. L. Andrews, ed. (Academic, 2008) pp. 139–168.

Squier, J.

A. Buist, M. Müller, J. Squier, and G. Brakenhoff, J Microsc. 192, 217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stoppa, D.

J. Richardson, R. Walker, L. Grant, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, E. Charbon, M. Gersbach, and R. K. Henderson, in Proceedings of IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (IEEE, 1009), pp. 77–80.

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Takiguchi, Y.

Thomson, L.

Toyoda, H.

Walker, R.

J. Richardson, R. Walker, L. Grant, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, E. Charbon, M. Gersbach, and R. K. Henderson, in Proceedings of IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (IEEE, 1009), pp. 77–80.

Watson, B. O.

V. Nikolenko, B. O. Watson, R. Araya, A. Woodruff, D. S. Peterka, and R. Yuste, Front. Neural Circuits 2, 5 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woodruff, A.

V. Nikolenko, B. O. Watson, R. Araya, A. Woodruff, D. S. Peterka, and R. Yuste, Front. Neural Circuits 2, 5 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wulff, K.

Yuste, R.

V. Nikolenko, B. O. Watson, R. Araya, A. Woodruff, D. S. Peterka, and R. Yuste, Front. Neural Circuits 2, 5 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Front. Neural Circuits (1)

V. Nikolenko, B. O. Watson, R. Araya, A. Woodruff, D. S. Peterka, and R. Yuste, Front. Neural Circuits 2, 5 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J Microsc. (1)

A. Buist, M. Müller, J. Squier, and G. Brakenhoff, J Microsc. 192, 217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

T. Nielsen, M. Frick, D. Hellweg, and P. Andresen, J. Microsc. 201, 368 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optik (1)

R. Gerchberg, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Other (2)

G. C. Spalding, J. Courtial, and R. Di Leonardo, in Structured Light and Its Applications, D. L. Andrews, ed. (Academic, 2008) pp. 139–168.

J. Richardson, R. Walker, L. Grant, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, E. Charbon, M. Gersbach, and R. K. Henderson, in Proceedings of IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (IEEE, 1009), pp. 77–80.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of multifocal microscope and feedback mechanism.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Operation of the DWGS Algorithm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Multifocal multiphoton images of zebrafish muscle tissue for each GS algorithm using a number of beamlet patterns.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparing input laser beam profile versus maximum % uniformity.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparing Algorithms for Various Beamlet Patterns

Equations (2)

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wjk=(I4¯Ij4)·(wjk1·Vk1¯Vjk1),
Uniformity(u)=1(ImaxIminImax+Imin).

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