Abstract

We demonstrated amplified spontaneous emission by embedding dye molecules within a dielectric layer of a metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength structure. It was reinforced when a strong coupling occurred between the Fabry–Perot mode supported by the dielectric layer and the surface plasmon polariton mode supported by the adjacent metallic grating. Here, we adjust the two mode interaction via tuning the depth of the metallic grating grooves. The stronger the interaction, the smaller the full width at half-maximum of the emission spectra and the lower the threshold of the amplified spontaneous emission.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  11. E. Hwang, I. I. Smolyaninov, and C. C. Davis, Nano Lett. 10, 813 (2010).
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  20. V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 9, 3489 (2009).
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  23. M. Kuttge, F. J. G. de Abajo, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 10, 1537 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. J. M. Gérard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Hayashi, Y. Ishigaki, and M. Fujii, Phys. Rev. B 86, 045408 (2012).
  28. O. Zaitsev and L. Deych, J. Opt. 12, 024001 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y. Jiang, H.-Y. Wang, H. Wang, B.-R. Gao, Y.-W. Hao, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 12636 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

J. J. Jiang, F. Xu, Y. B. Xie, X. M. Tang, Z. Y. Liu, X. J. Zhang, and Y. Y. Zhu, Opt. Lett. 38, 4570 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Choudhury, R. Badugu, K. Nowaczyk, K. Ray, and J. R. Lakowicz, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 227 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

Y. H. Chen, J. F. Li, M. L. Ren, and Z. Y. Li, Small 8, 1355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X. L. Zhang, Y. G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y. F. Liu, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 24, 1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Schmidt, D. Y. Lei, L. Wondraczek, V. Nazabal, and S. A. Maier, Nat. Commun. 3, 1108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Hayashi, Y. Ishigaki, and M. Fujii, Phys. Rev. B 86, 045408 (2012).

2011 (4)

Y. Jiang, H.-Y. Wang, H. Wang, B.-R. Gao, Y.-W. Hao, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 12636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Chen, J. F. Li, M. L. Ren, B. L. Wang, J. X. Fu, S. Y. Liu, and Z. Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Wu, P. F. Guo, W. X. Huang, S. J. Xiao, and Y. Y. Zhu, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 15205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, E. Devaux, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, Nano Lett. 11, 2400 (2011).

2010 (5)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Hwang, I. I. Smolyaninov, and C. C. Davis, Nano Lett. 10, 813 (2010).

O. Zaitsev and L. Deych, J. Opt. 12, 024001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mitra, H. Harutyunyan, S. Palomba, and L. Novotny, Opt. Lett. 35, 953 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuttge, F. J. G. de Abajo, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 10, 1537 (2010).

2009 (3)

J. Wenger, D. Gérard, H. Aouani, and H. Rigneault, Anal. Chem. 81, 834 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Chizhik, F. Schleifenbaum, R. Gutbrod, A. Chizhik, D. Khoptyar, and A. J. Meixner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 9, 3489 (2009).

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

Y. X. Zhang, K. Aslan, and M. J. R. Previte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 053107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, E. B. Flagg, P. Bianucci, X. Y. Wang, D. G. Deppe, W. Ma, J. Zhang, G. J. Salamo, M. Xiao, and C. K. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 187402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. Craighead, Nature 442, 387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Bacia, S. A. Kim, and P. Schwille, Nat. Methods 3, 83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Pitschke, R. Prior, M. Haupt, and D. Riesner, Nat. Med. 4, 832 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gérard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. Lieberherr, C. Fattinger, and W. Lukosz, Surf. Sci. 189–190, 954 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

Aouani, H.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, E. Devaux, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, Nano Lett. 11, 2400 (2011).

J. Wenger, D. Gérard, H. Aouani, and H. Rigneault, Anal. Chem. 81, 834 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aslan, K.

Y. X. Zhang, K. Aslan, and M. J. R. Previte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 053107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bacia, K.

K. Bacia, S. A. Kim, and P. Schwille, Nat. Methods 3, 83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Badugu, R.

S. D. Choudhury, R. Badugu, K. Nowaczyk, K. Ray, and J. R. Lakowicz, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 227 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X. L. Zhang, Y. G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y. F. Liu, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 24, 1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 9, 3489 (2009).

Bi, Y. G.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X. L. Zhang, Y. G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y. F. Liu, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 24, 1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bianucci, P.

A. Muller, E. B. Flagg, P. Bianucci, X. Y. Wang, D. G. Deppe, W. Ma, J. Zhang, G. J. Salamo, M. Xiao, and C. K. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 187402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bonod, N.

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X. L. Zhang, Y. G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y. F. Liu, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 24, 1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q. D.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X. L. Zhang, Y. G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y. F. Liu, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 24, 1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.-D.

Y. Jiang, H.-Y. Wang, H. Wang, B.-R. Gao, Y.-W. Hao, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 12636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. H.

Y. H. Chen, J. F. Li, M. L. Ren, and Z. Y. Li, Small 8, 1355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Chen, J. F. Li, M. L. Ren, B. L. Wang, J. X. Fu, S. Y. Liu, and Z. Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chizhik, A.

A. Chizhik, F. Schleifenbaum, R. Gutbrod, A. Chizhik, D. Khoptyar, and A. J. Meixner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Chizhik, F. Schleifenbaum, R. Gutbrod, A. Chizhik, D. Khoptyar, and A. J. Meixner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choudhury, S. D.

S. D. Choudhury, R. Badugu, K. Nowaczyk, K. Ray, and J. R. Lakowicz, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 227 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Costard, E.

J. M. Gérard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Craighead, H.

H. Craighead, Nature 442, 387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

E. Hwang, I. I. Smolyaninov, and C. C. Davis, Nano Lett. 10, 813 (2010).

de Abajo, F. J. G.

M. Kuttge, F. J. G. de Abajo, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 10, 1537 (2010).

Deppe, D. G.

A. Muller, E. B. Flagg, P. Bianucci, X. Y. Wang, D. G. Deppe, W. Ma, J. Zhang, G. J. Salamo, M. Xiao, and C. K. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 187402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, E. Devaux, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, Nano Lett. 11, 2400 (2011).

Deych, L.

O. Zaitsev and L. Deych, J. Opt. 12, 024001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dintinger, J.

Ebbesen, T. W.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, E. Devaux, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, Nano Lett. 11, 2400 (2011).

J. Wenger, D. Gérard, J. Dintinger, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. Rigneault, Opt. Express 16, 3008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Enderlein, J.

C. Zander, J. Enderlein, and R. A. Keller, Single Molecule Detection in Solution (Wiley, 2002).

Fattinger, C.

M. Lieberherr, C. Fattinger, and W. Lukosz, Surf. Sci. 189–190, 954 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X. L. Zhang, Y. G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y. F. Liu, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 24, 1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Flagg, E. B.

A. Muller, E. B. Flagg, P. Bianucci, X. Y. Wang, D. G. Deppe, W. Ma, J. Zhang, G. J. Salamo, M. Xiao, and C. K. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 187402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fort, E.

E. Fort and S. Grésillon, J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).

Fu, J. X.

Y. H. Chen, J. F. Li, M. L. Ren, B. L. Wang, J. X. Fu, S. Y. Liu, and Z. Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

S. Hayashi, Y. Ishigaki, and M. Fujii, Phys. Rev. B 86, 045408 (2012).

Gao, B.-R.

Y. Jiang, H.-Y. Wang, H. Wang, B.-R. Gao, Y.-W. Hao, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 12636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gayral, B.

J. M. Gérard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gérard, D.

Gérard, J. M.

J. M. Gérard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grésillon, S.

E. Fort and S. Grésillon, J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).

Guo, P. F.

S. Wu, P. F. Guo, W. X. Huang, S. J. Xiao, and Y. Y. Zhu, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 15205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gutbrod, R.

A. Chizhik, F. Schleifenbaum, R. Gutbrod, A. Chizhik, D. Khoptyar, and A. J. Meixner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Y.-W.

Y. Jiang, H.-Y. Wang, H. Wang, B.-R. Gao, Y.-W. Hao, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 12636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harutyunyan, H.

Haupt, M.

M. Pitschke, R. Prior, M. Haupt, and D. Riesner, Nat. Med. 4, 832 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

S. Hayashi, Y. Ishigaki, and M. Fujii, Phys. Rev. B 86, 045408 (2012).

Huang, W. X.

S. Wu, P. F. Guo, W. X. Huang, S. J. Xiao, and Y. Y. Zhu, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 15205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, E.

E. Hwang, I. I. Smolyaninov, and C. C. Davis, Nano Lett. 10, 813 (2010).

Ishigaki, Y.

S. Hayashi, Y. Ishigaki, and M. Fujii, Phys. Rev. B 86, 045408 (2012).

Jiang, J. J.

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, H.-Y. Wang, H. Wang, B.-R. Gao, Y.-W. Hao, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 12636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X. L. Zhang, Y. G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y. F. Liu, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 24, 1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, H.-Y. Wang, H. Wang, B.-R. Gao, Y.-W. Hao, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 12636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keller, R. A.

C. Zander, J. Enderlein, and R. A. Keller, Single Molecule Detection in Solution (Wiley, 2002).

Khoptyar, D.

A. Chizhik, F. Schleifenbaum, R. Gutbrod, A. Chizhik, D. Khoptyar, and A. J. Meixner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. A.

K. Bacia, S. A. Kim, and P. Schwille, Nat. Methods 3, 83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuttge, M.

M. Kuttge, F. J. G. de Abajo, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 10, 1537 (2010).

Lakowicz, J. R.

S. D. Choudhury, R. Badugu, K. Nowaczyk, K. Ray, and J. R. Lakowicz, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 227 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lan, T.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X. L. Zhang, Y. G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y. F. Liu, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 24, 1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Legrand, B.

J. M. Gérard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lei, D. Y.

M. A. Schmidt, D. Y. Lei, L. Wondraczek, V. Nazabal, and S. A. Maier, Nat. Commun. 3, 1108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. F.

Y. H. Chen, J. F. Li, M. L. Ren, and Z. Y. Li, Small 8, 1355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Chen, J. F. Li, M. L. Ren, B. L. Wang, J. X. Fu, S. Y. Liu, and Z. Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

Y. H. Chen, J. F. Li, M. L. Ren, and Z. Y. Li, Small 8, 1355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Chen, J. F. Li, M. L. Ren, B. L. Wang, J. X. Fu, S. Y. Liu, and Z. Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lieberherr, M.

M. Lieberherr, C. Fattinger, and W. Lukosz, Surf. Sci. 189–190, 954 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. Y.

Y. H. Chen, J. F. Li, M. L. Ren, B. L. Wang, J. X. Fu, S. Y. Liu, and Z. Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. F.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X. L. Zhang, Y. G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y. F. Liu, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 24, 1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. Y.

Lukosz, W.

M. Lieberherr, C. Fattinger, and W. Lukosz, Surf. Sci. 189–190, 954 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1495 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W.

A. Muller, E. B. Flagg, P. Bianucci, X. Y. Wang, D. G. Deppe, W. Ma, J. Zhang, G. J. Salamo, M. Xiao, and C. K. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 187402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mahboub, O.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, E. Devaux, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, Nano Lett. 11, 2400 (2011).

J. Wenger, D. Gérard, J. Dintinger, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. Rigneault, Opt. Express 16, 3008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

M. A. Schmidt, D. Y. Lei, L. Wondraczek, V. Nazabal, and S. A. Maier, Nat. Commun. 3, 1108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meixner, A. J.

A. Chizhik, F. Schleifenbaum, R. Gutbrod, A. Chizhik, D. Khoptyar, and A. J. Meixner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, A.

Muller, A.

A. Muller, E. B. Flagg, P. Bianucci, X. Y. Wang, D. G. Deppe, W. Ma, J. Zhang, G. J. Salamo, M. Xiao, and C. K. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 187402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nazabal, V.

M. A. Schmidt, D. Y. Lei, L. Wondraczek, V. Nazabal, and S. A. Maier, Nat. Commun. 3, 1108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

Nowaczyk, K.

S. D. Choudhury, R. Badugu, K. Nowaczyk, K. Ray, and J. R. Lakowicz, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 227 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 9, 3489 (2009).

Palomba, S.

Pitschke, M.

M. Pitschke, R. Prior, M. Haupt, and D. Riesner, Nat. Med. 4, 832 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

M. Kuttge, F. J. G. de Abajo, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 10, 1537 (2010).

Popov, E.

Previte, M. J. R.

Y. X. Zhang, K. Aslan, and M. J. R. Previte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 053107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prior, R.

M. Pitschke, R. Prior, M. Haupt, and D. Riesner, Nat. Med. 4, 832 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ray, K.

S. D. Choudhury, R. Badugu, K. Nowaczyk, K. Ray, and J. R. Lakowicz, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 227 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ren, M. L.

Y. H. Chen, J. F. Li, M. L. Ren, and Z. Y. Li, Small 8, 1355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Chen, J. F. Li, M. L. Ren, B. L. Wang, J. X. Fu, S. Y. Liu, and Z. Y. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Riesner, D.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a)–(c) Schematic diagram of the fabricating process of the three-layer structure with a periodic grating on the top. (d) The fluorescence spectra of the dye molecule. The inset shows the molecule structure and formula. (e) The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the multilayer structure at 52° visual angle. (f) The schematic diagram of the enlarged cross section corresponding to the red dashed part in (e).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a), (b) Simulated and (c), (d) experimental results of dispersion relation for structures with the same groove depth, h=25nm, but different grating periods. (a), (c) for P=650nm, and (b), (d) for P=680nm. (e)–(g) show the simulated field distribution corresponding to the coupling or decoupling of the FP cavity mode and the SPPs mode at normal incidence. (e) for P=650nm, and (f), (g) for P=680nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Fluorescence spectra of the structures with different groove depth, h; the thickness of the center PMMA layer is fixed at 185 nm and the grating period P=650nm. The inset shows the FWHM at various h values. (b) The experimental (dotted line) and simulated (solid line) extinction spectra of the MDM structure with h=15, 25 and 35 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Obtained fluorescence intensity at different polarization angles by a CCD on a Zeiss microscope. The red solid circles indicate the intensity of fluorescence collected at different incident angles, while the black solid squares denote the intensity of fluorescence collected at different output angles. The four square pictures are the fluorescence images obtained at different input or output angles.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Threshold of structures measured at room temperature for different groove depth, h.

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