Abstract

An all-in-fiber prototype optofluidic device was fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation and subsequent selective chemical wet etching. Horizontal and vertical microchannels can be flexibly created into an optical fiber to form a fluidic cavity with inlets/outlets. The fluidic cavity also functions as an optical Fabry–Perot cavity in which the filled liquid can be probed. The assembly-free microdevice exhibited a fringe visibility of 20 dB and was demonstrated for measurement of the refractive index of the filling liquids. The proposed all-in-fiber optofluidic micro device is attractive for chemical and biomedical sensing because it is flexible in design, simple to fabricate, mechanically robust, and miniaturized in size.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2011 (2)

R. Osellame, H. J. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, and G. Cerullo, Lab Chip 10, 1167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Wei, X. Lan, Y. Huang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. J. 2, 469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

T. Wei, Y. Han, Y. Li, H.-L. Tsai, and H. Xiao, Opt. Express 16, 5764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. Eggleton, Nat. Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
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2006 (3)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Domachuk, I. Littler, M. Cronin-Golomb, and B. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 31, 2559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

B. Qi, G. R. Plckrell, J. C. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Bado, P.

Bellouard, Y.

Bennion, I.

Carlsen, A.

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, H. J. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, and G. Cerullo, Lab Chip 10, 1167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Wei, X. Lan, Y. Huang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. J. 2, 469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Crespi, A.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, and G. Cerullo, Lab Chip 10, 1167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

P. Domachuk, I. Littler, M. Cronin-Golomb, and B. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. Eggleton, Nat. Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Domachuk, I. Littler, M. Cronin-Golomb, and B. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dongre, C.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, and G. Cerullo, Lab Chip 10, 1167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duan, Y.

B. Qi, G. R. Plckrell, J. C. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dugan, M.

Eggleton, B.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. Eggleton, Nat. Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Domachuk, I. Littler, M. Cronin-Golomb, and B. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Gu, Y.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, and G. Cerullo, Lab Chip 10, 1167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

Hansen, T. P.

Hoekstra, H. J.

R. Osellame, H. J. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, and G. Cerullo, Lab Chip 10, 1167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hoiby, P. E.

Huang, J.

Huang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Wei, X. Lan, Y. Huang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. J. 2, 469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

B. Qi, G. R. Plckrell, J. C. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huo, W.

B. Qi, G. R. Plckrell, J. C. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. B.

Kaur, A.

Lai, Y.

Lan, X.

Y. Zhang, L. Yuan, X. Lan, A. Kaur, J. Huang, and H. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 38, 4609 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Wei, X. Lan, Y. Huang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. J. 2, 469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Wei, X. Lan, Y. Huang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. J. 2, 469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Wei, Y. Han, Y. Li, H.-L. Tsai, and H. Xiao, Opt. Express 16, 5764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Littler, I.

P. Domachuk, I. Littler, M. Cronin-Golomb, and B. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maselli, V.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mathies, R. A.

A. T. Woolley and R. A. Mathies, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 11348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

May, R. G.

B. Qi, G. R. Plckrell, J. C. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. Eggleton, Nat. Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ngamsom, B.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, and G. Cerullo, Lab Chip 10, 1167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, K.

Nielsen, L. B.

Noordegraaf, D.

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, H. J. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, L. H.

Peng, W.

B. Qi, G. R. Plckrell, J. C. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Plckrell, G. R.

B. Qi, G. R. Plckrell, J. C. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

R. Osellame, H. J. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, and G. Cerullo, Lab Chip 10, 1167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qi, B.

B. Qi, G. R. Plckrell, J. C. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, and G. Cerullo, Lab Chip 10, 1167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riishede, J.

Said, A.

Suter, J. D.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, H.-L.

van den Vlekkert, H. H.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, and G. Cerullo, Lab Chip 10, 1167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vazquez, R. M.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

B. Qi, G. R. Plckrell, J. C. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watts, P.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, and G. Cerullo, Lab Chip 10, 1167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Wei, X. Lan, Y. Huang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. J. 2, 469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Wei, Y. Han, Y. Li, H.-L. Tsai, and H. Xiao, Opt. Express 16, 5764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woolley, A. T.

A. T. Woolley and R. A. Mathies, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 11348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H.

Y. Zhang, L. Yuan, X. Lan, A. Kaur, J. Huang, and H. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 38, 4609 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Wei, X. Lan, Y. Huang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. J. 2, 469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Wei, Y. Han, Y. Li, H.-L. Tsai, and H. Xiao, Opt. Express 16, 5764 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, G. R. Plckrell, J. C. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. C.

B. Qi, G. R. Plckrell, J. C. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, P.

B. Qi, G. R. Plckrell, J. C. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, L. Yuan, X. Lan, A. Kaur, J. Huang, and H. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 38, 4609 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Wei, X. Lan, Y. Huang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. J. 2, 469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zourob, M.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (1)

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Domachuk, I. Littler, M. Cronin-Golomb, and B. Eggleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Wei, X. Lan, Y. Huang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. J. 2, 469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, and G. Cerullo, Lab Chip 10, 1167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

R. Osellame, H. J. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nat. Photonics 5, 591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. Eggleton, Nat. Photonics 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, Nature 442, 381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Qi, G. R. Plckrell, J. C. Xu, P. Zhang, Y. Duan, W. Peng, Z. Huang, W. Huo, H. Xiao, R. G. May, and A. Wang, Opt. Eng. 42, 3165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

A. T. Woolley and R. A. Mathies, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 11348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the all-in-fiber optofluidic device.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the fs laser micromachining system.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Microscope image of the fabricated all-in-fiber optofluidic device: the length L and height H of the FP cavity are 55 and 20 μm, respectively. (b) Top view of the fiber device.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reflection spectra in air of the all-in-fiber optofluidic devices with cavity lengths of 35 and 55 μm, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Interference spectra and (b) center wavelength of an interference valley (1567.6 nm) of the all-in-fiber device in sucrose solutions with different concentrations.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I=I1+I2+2I1I2cos(2π·OPDλ+ϕ0),
OPD=2ncavityL,
4πncavityLλm+φ0=(2m+1)π,
FSR=λ22ncavityL.

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