Abstract

This work presents recent measurements of a CH4/H2/N2 turbulent nonpremixed jet flame using an imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (IFTS). Spatially resolved (128×192 pixels, 0.72mm/pixel) mean radiance spectra were collected between 1800cm1ν˜4500cm1 (2.22μmλ5.55μm) at moderate spectral resolution (δν˜=16cm1, δλ¯=20nm) spanning the visible flame. Higher spectral-resolution measurements (δν˜=0.25cm1, δλ¯=0.3nm) were also captured on a smaller window (8×192) at 20, 40, and 60 diameters above the jet exit and reveal the rotational fine structure associated with various vibrational transitions in CH4, CO2, CO, and H2O. These new imaging measurements compare favorably with existing spectra acquired at select flame locations, demonstrating the capability of IFTS for turbulent combustion studies.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, Applied Combustion Diagnostics (Taylor & Francis, 2002).
  2. Y. Zheng, R. S. Barlow, and J. P. Gore, J. Heat Transfer 125, 678 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  9. http://www.sandia.gov/TNF/abstract.html .
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    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Farley, A. Vallières, M. Chamberland, A. Villemaire, and J.-F. Legault, Proc. SPIE 6398, 63980T (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. http://radiantzemax.com .
  13. J. M. Hollas, High Resolution Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1998).

2013 (1)

B. A. Rankin, D. A. Blunck, and J. P. Gore, J. Heat Transfer 135, 021201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

K. C. Gross, K. C. Bradley, and G. P. Perram, Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 9390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

L. Ma, W. Cai, A. W. Caswell, T. Kraetschmer, S. T. Sanders, S. Roy, and J. R. Gord, Opt. Express 17, 8602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Blunck, S. Basu, Y. Zheng, V. Katta, and J. Gore, Proc. Comb. Inst. 32, 2527 (2009).

2006 (1)

V. Farley, A. Vallières, M. Chamberland, A. Villemaire, and J.-F. Legault, Proc. SPIE 6398, 63980T (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Y. Zheng, R. S. Barlow, and J. P. Gore, J. Heat Transfer 125, 678 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zheng, R. S. Barlow, and J. P. Gore, J. Heat Transfer 125, 1065 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

W. Meier, R. S. Barlow, Y.-L. Chen, and J.-Y. Chen, Combust. Flame 123, 326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

P. R. Solomon, P. E. Best, R. M. Carangelo, J. R. Markham, P.-L. Chien, R. J. Santoro, and H. G. Semerjian, Symp. Int. Combust. Proc. 21, 1763 (1988).

Barlow, R. S.

Y. Zheng, R. S. Barlow, and J. P. Gore, J. Heat Transfer 125, 678 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zheng, R. S. Barlow, and J. P. Gore, J. Heat Transfer 125, 1065 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Meier, R. S. Barlow, Y.-L. Chen, and J.-Y. Chen, Combust. Flame 123, 326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Basu, S.

D. Blunck, S. Basu, Y. Zheng, V. Katta, and J. Gore, Proc. Comb. Inst. 32, 2527 (2009).

Best, P. E.

P. R. Solomon, P. E. Best, R. M. Carangelo, J. R. Markham, P.-L. Chien, R. J. Santoro, and H. G. Semerjian, Symp. Int. Combust. Proc. 21, 1763 (1988).

Blunck, D.

D. Blunck, S. Basu, Y. Zheng, V. Katta, and J. Gore, Proc. Comb. Inst. 32, 2527 (2009).

Blunck, D. A.

B. A. Rankin, D. A. Blunck, and J. P. Gore, J. Heat Transfer 135, 021201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, K. C.

K. C. Gross, K. C. Bradley, and G. P. Perram, Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 9390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

Carangelo, R. M.

P. R. Solomon, P. E. Best, R. M. Carangelo, J. R. Markham, P.-L. Chien, R. J. Santoro, and H. G. Semerjian, Symp. Int. Combust. Proc. 21, 1763 (1988).

Caswell, A. W.

Chamberland, M.

V. Farley, A. Vallières, M. Chamberland, A. Villemaire, and J.-F. Legault, Proc. SPIE 6398, 63980T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-Y.

W. Meier, R. S. Barlow, Y.-L. Chen, and J.-Y. Chen, Combust. Flame 123, 326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-L.

W. Meier, R. S. Barlow, Y.-L. Chen, and J.-Y. Chen, Combust. Flame 123, 326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chien, P.-L.

P. R. Solomon, P. E. Best, R. M. Carangelo, J. R. Markham, P.-L. Chien, R. J. Santoro, and H. G. Semerjian, Symp. Int. Combust. Proc. 21, 1763 (1988).

Farley, V.

V. Farley, A. Vallières, M. Chamberland, A. Villemaire, and J.-F. Legault, Proc. SPIE 6398, 63980T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gord, J. R.

Gore, J.

D. Blunck, S. Basu, Y. Zheng, V. Katta, and J. Gore, Proc. Comb. Inst. 32, 2527 (2009).

Gore, J. P.

B. A. Rankin, D. A. Blunck, and J. P. Gore, J. Heat Transfer 135, 021201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zheng, R. S. Barlow, and J. P. Gore, J. Heat Transfer 125, 1065 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zheng, R. S. Barlow, and J. P. Gore, J. Heat Transfer 125, 678 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gross, K. C.

K. C. Gross, K. C. Bradley, and G. P. Perram, Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 9390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hollas, J. M.

J. M. Hollas, High Resolution Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1998).

Jeffries, J. B.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, Applied Combustion Diagnostics (Taylor & Francis, 2002).

Katta, V.

D. Blunck, S. Basu, Y. Zheng, V. Katta, and J. Gore, Proc. Comb. Inst. 32, 2527 (2009).

Kohse-Höinghaus, K.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, Applied Combustion Diagnostics (Taylor & Francis, 2002).

Kraetschmer, T.

Legault, J.-F.

V. Farley, A. Vallières, M. Chamberland, A. Villemaire, and J.-F. Legault, Proc. SPIE 6398, 63980T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.

Markham, J. R.

P. R. Solomon, P. E. Best, R. M. Carangelo, J. R. Markham, P.-L. Chien, R. J. Santoro, and H. G. Semerjian, Symp. Int. Combust. Proc. 21, 1763 (1988).

Meier, W.

W. Meier, R. S. Barlow, Y.-L. Chen, and J.-Y. Chen, Combust. Flame 123, 326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perram, G. P.

K. C. Gross, K. C. Bradley, and G. P. Perram, Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 9390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rankin, B. A.

B. A. Rankin, D. A. Blunck, and J. P. Gore, J. Heat Transfer 135, 021201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Roy, S.

Sanders, S. T.

Santoro, R. J.

P. R. Solomon, P. E. Best, R. M. Carangelo, J. R. Markham, P.-L. Chien, R. J. Santoro, and H. G. Semerjian, Symp. Int. Combust. Proc. 21, 1763 (1988).

Semerjian, H. G.

P. R. Solomon, P. E. Best, R. M. Carangelo, J. R. Markham, P.-L. Chien, R. J. Santoro, and H. G. Semerjian, Symp. Int. Combust. Proc. 21, 1763 (1988).

Solomon, P. R.

P. R. Solomon, P. E. Best, R. M. Carangelo, J. R. Markham, P.-L. Chien, R. J. Santoro, and H. G. Semerjian, Symp. Int. Combust. Proc. 21, 1763 (1988).

Vallières, A.

V. Farley, A. Vallières, M. Chamberland, A. Villemaire, and J.-F. Legault, Proc. SPIE 6398, 63980T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villemaire, A.

V. Farley, A. Vallières, M. Chamberland, A. Villemaire, and J.-F. Legault, Proc. SPIE 6398, 63980T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.

D. Blunck, S. Basu, Y. Zheng, V. Katta, and J. Gore, Proc. Comb. Inst. 32, 2527 (2009).

Y. Zheng, R. S. Barlow, and J. P. Gore, J. Heat Transfer 125, 678 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zheng, R. S. Barlow, and J. P. Gore, J. Heat Transfer 125, 1065 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

W. Meier, R. S. Barlow, Y.-L. Chen, and J.-Y. Chen, Combust. Flame 123, 326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. C. Gross, K. C. Bradley, and G. P. Perram, Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 9390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Heat Transfer (3)

Y. Zheng, R. S. Barlow, and J. P. Gore, J. Heat Transfer 125, 678 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zheng, R. S. Barlow, and J. P. Gore, J. Heat Transfer 125, 1065 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Rankin, D. A. Blunck, and J. P. Gore, J. Heat Transfer 135, 021201 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. Comb. Inst. (1)

D. Blunck, S. Basu, Y. Zheng, V. Katta, and J. Gore, Proc. Comb. Inst. 32, 2527 (2009).

Proc. SPIE (1)

V. Farley, A. Vallières, M. Chamberland, A. Villemaire, and J.-F. Legault, Proc. SPIE 6398, 63980T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Symp. Int. Combust. Proc. (1)

P. R. Solomon, P. E. Best, R. M. Carangelo, J. R. Markham, P.-L. Chien, R. J. Santoro, and H. G. Semerjian, Symp. Int. Combust. Proc. 21, 1763 (1988).

Other (4)

http://radiantzemax.com .

J. M. Hollas, High Resolution Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1998).

http://www.sandia.gov/TNF/abstract.html .

K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, Applied Combustion Diagnostics (Taylor & Francis, 2002).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Panel A: schematic illustrating the FPA capturing infrared images at fixed OPDs as the Michelson sweeps, generating an interferometric datacube. Panel B: single interferogram (green, upper curve) and corresponding raw spectrum (red, lower curve) at flame center 20D above exit. Panel C: Time-averaged interferogram (green, upper curve) and corresponding mean flame spectrum (red, lower curve).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Panel A: single broadband images from the lower spectral resolution (16cm1) datasets with 128×192 FPA window. Panel B: corresponding time-averaged broadband images. Panel C: Time-averaged radiance spectrally averaged over a prominent CO2 band. Panel D: Time-averaged radiance spectrally averaged over a prominent CH4 band. (Last spatial region limited due to unislide range.)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Panel A: diametric, high-resolution (δν˜=0.25cm1) apparent flame spectrum at 20D with spectroscopic transitions annotated. Panel B: apparent (—) and atmospheric-corrected (⋯) low-resolution diametric flame spectra (δν˜=16cm1) at 20, 40, and 60D (black, red, blue) compared with previous measurements (○). Radiance uncertainty (95% confidence interval) presented as a translucent band around each apparent spectrum. The CO2 and CH4 bands used in Fig. 2 are identified.

Equations (2)

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Ii(x)=0(1+cos(2πν˜x))Gi(ν˜)(LiS(ν˜)+LiI(ν˜))dν˜,
=IiDC+IiAC(x).

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