Abstract

We present small-sized depletion-type silicon Mach–Zehnder (MZ) modulator with a vertically dipped PN depletion junction (VDJ) phase shifter based on a CMOS compatible process. The fabricated device with a 100 μm long VDJ phase shifter shows a VπLπ of 0.6V·cm with a 3 dB bandwidth of 50GHz at 2V bias. The measured extinction ratios are 6 and 5.3 dB for 40 and 50Gb/s operation under 2.5Vpp differential drive, respectively. On-chip insertion loss is 3 dB for the maximum optical transmission. This includes the phase-shifter loss of 1.88dB/100μm, resulting mostly from the extra optical propagation loss through the polysilicon-plug structure for electrical contact, which can be readily minimized by utilizing finer-scaled lithography nodes. The experimental result indicates that a compact depletion-type MZ modulator based on the VDJ scheme can be a potential candidate for future chip-level integration.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

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2010

G. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
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N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 18, 7994 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

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D. Miller, Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 (2009).
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2008

2007

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
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W. Green, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, Opt. Express 15, 17107 (2007).

2006

B. Jalali, M. Paniccia, and G. Reed, IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(3), 58 (2006).
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L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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2005

1987

R. Soref and B. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Abdalla, S.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 362–364.

Ahn, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Albonesi, D. H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1699 (2006).
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Alic, N.

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Alon, E.

Amberg, P.

Analui, B.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 362–364.

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Ayazi, A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Lim, T. Liow, S. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, Opt. Express 20, 12014 (2012).
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A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 7–8.

Balmater, E.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 362–364.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Ezra, S.

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergmen, K.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 7–8.

Bouville, D.

Capellini, G.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 362–364.

Carloni, L. P.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chen, G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, and R. Min, Opt. Express 20, 3209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, Opt. Express 15, 660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chi, H.

Cho, M.

Chu, T.

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, Electron. Lett. 43, 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J.

Dayringer, M.

De Dobbelaere, P.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 362–364.

Desiatov, B.

Ding, J.

Ding, R.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Lim, T. Liow, S. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, Opt. Express 20, 12014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 7–8.

Dong, P.

Emerson, N.

Fauchet, P. M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.

Fédéli, J. M.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.

Fournier, M.

Friedman, E. G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gainsley, J.

Gardes, F.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Mashanovich, and G. Reed, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, Opt. Express 19, 11507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, Nat. Photonics 4, 518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

Gill, D. M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gloeckner, S.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 362–364.

Gould, M.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 7–8.

Goykhman, I.

Green, W.

W. Green, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, Opt. Express 15, 17107 (2007).

Grosse, P.

Grove, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guckenberger, D.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 362–364.

Gunn, C.

C. Gunn, Micro. IEEE 26, 58 (2006).

Harris, N.

Harrison, M.

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 362–364.

Haurylau, M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Lim, T. Liow, S. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, Opt. Express 20, 12014 (2012).
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L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
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T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Lim, T. Liow, S. Teo, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, Opt. Express 20, 12014 (2012).
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T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 362–364.

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T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp. 362–364.

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A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, in IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 7–8.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram for the cross section of a silicon MZ modulator phase shifter arm with a vertically dipped depletion junction (VDJ) structure. Left inset shows a schematic example for the case of a phase-shifter waveguide with double VDJs. Right inset shows a side-view schematic diagram of the VDJ structure. (b) TEM cross-sectional image of a silicon MZM phase-shifter arm with a VDJ structure. Right inset shows the calculated beam-propagation profile through a VDJ phase-shifter waveguide arm. (c) Top views of SEM and microscopic images of the fabricated silicon MZ modulator with a 100 μm long VDJ phase-shifter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical transmission spectra of a MZM with a 100 μm long VDJ phase shifter at various DC biases. (b) Resulting voltage-induced phase shifts.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Measured frequency response of a 100 μm VDJ phase-shifter MZ modulator. (b) Measured 3 dB bandwidth (f3dB) is 43GHz at 0VDC bias and greater than 50 GHz beyond 2VDC bias.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured eye diagrams of the MZ modulator with a 100 μm long VDJ phase shifter show ERs of (a) 6dB at 40Gb/s operation and (b) 5.3dB at 50Gb/s operation at 2VDC with 2.5Vpp differential voltage driving.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

High-speed operations of a 250 μm long VDJ phase-shifter MZM for (a) 40Gb/s with 1.2Vpp differential drive at 0.4VDC and (b) 50Gb/s with 2.5Vpp differential drive at 2VDC with same wavelength. Measured ERs are (a) 2.7dB for 1.2Vpp drive and (b) 5.6 dB for 2.5Vpp for 50Gb/s modulation.

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