Abstract

We investigate the dispersion and transmission properties of slow-light coupled-resonator optical waveguides that consist of more than 100 ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal cavities. We show that experimental group-delay spectra exhibited good agreement with numerically calculated dispersions obtained with the three-dimensional plane wave expansion method. Furthermore, a statistical analysis of the transmission property indicated that fabrication fluctuations in individual cavities are less relevant than in the localized regime. These behaviors are observed for a chain of up to 400 cavities in a bandwidth of 0.44 THz.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

H. Takesue, N. Matsuda, W. J. Munro, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Commun. 4, 2725 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, A. Canciamilla, and A. Melloni, Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

2008 (5)

S. Mookherjea, J. S. Park, S.-H. Yang, and P. R. Bandaru, Nat. Photonics 2, 90 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, Nat. Photonics 2, 448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, Nat. Photonics 2, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, Nat. Photonics 2, 741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Express 16, 8395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

T. F. Krauss, J. Phys. D 40, 2666 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, Nat. Photonics 1, 65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, Opt. Express 15, 7826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, and J. D. O’Brien, Opt. Express 11, 3431 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 365 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

A. D. Mirlin, R. Pnini, and B. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. E 57, R6285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Stefanou and A. Modinos, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen and M. C. W. van Rossum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2674 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Kogan and M. Kaveh, Phys. Rev. B 52, R3813 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

Baba, T.

T. Baba, Nat. Photonics 2, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Bandaru, P. R.

S. Mookherjea, J. S. Park, S.-H. Yang, and P. R. Bandaru, Nat. Photonics 2, 90 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

Canciamilla, A.

F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, A. Canciamilla, and A. Melloni, Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, M. L.

Dumon, P.

Fan, S.

Ferrari, C.

F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, A. Canciamilla, and A. Melloni, Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Express 16, 8395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, P. D.

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, Science 327, 1352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A. Z.

Gifford, D. K.

Green, W. M. J.

Gupta, G.

Houdré, R.

J. Jágerská, N. L. Thomas, V. Zabelin, R. Houdré, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 34, 359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Jágerská, H. Zhang, N. L. Thomas, and R. Houdré, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

Ippen, E.

Jágerská, J.

J. Jágerská, H. Zhang, N. L. Thomas, and R. Houdré, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Jágerská, N. L. Thomas, V. Zabelin, R. Houdré, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 34, 359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Kaveh, M.

E. Kogan and M. Kaveh, Phys. Rev. B 52, R3813 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W. J.

Kogan, E.

E. Kogan and M. Kaveh, Phys. Rev. B 52, R3813 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

T. F. Krauss, Nat. Photonics 2, 448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, J. Phys. D 40, 2666 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, W.

Kuramochi, E.

H. Takesue, N. Matsuda, W. J. Munro, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Commun. 4, 2725 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, Nat. Photonics 2, 741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, Opt. Express 15, 7826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

Lodahl, P.

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, Science 327, 1352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Martinelli, M.

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Express 16, 8395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 365 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, N.

H. Takesue, N. Matsuda, W. J. Munro, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Commun. 4, 2725 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Melloni, A.

F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, A. Canciamilla, and A. Melloni, Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Express 16, 8395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 365 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mirlin, A. D.

A. D. Mirlin, R. Pnini, and B. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. E 57, R6285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Modinos, A.

N. Stefanou and A. Modinos, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mookherjea, S.

Morichetti, F.

F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, A. Canciamilla, and A. Melloni, Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Express 16, 8395 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 365 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Munro, W. J.

H. Takesue, N. Matsuda, W. J. Munro, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Commun. 4, 2725 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M.

Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen and M. C. W. van Rossum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2674 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

H. Takesue, N. Matsuda, W. J. Munro, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Commun. 4, 2725 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, Nat. Photonics 2, 741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, Opt. Express 15, 7826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, J. D.

Park, J. S.

S. Mookherjea, J. S. Park, S.-H. Yang, and P. R. Bandaru, Nat. Photonics 2, 90 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pnini, R.

A. D. Mirlin, R. Pnini, and B. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. E 57, R6285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poon, A. W.

Sapienza, L.

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, Science 327, 1352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Schneider, M. A.

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, Nat. Photonics 1, 65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, B.

A. D. Mirlin, R. Pnini, and B. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. E 57, R6285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smolka, S.

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, Science 327, 1352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

Stefanou, N.

N. Stefanou and A. Modinos, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stobbe, S.

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, Science 327, 1352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stoytchev, M.

Takahashi, C.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takesue, H.

H. Takesue, N. Matsuda, W. J. Munro, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Commun. 4, 2725 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, Nat. Photonics 2, 741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, Opt. Express 15, 7826 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, H.

Thomas, N. L.

J. Jágerská, N. L. Thomas, V. Zabelin, R. Houdré, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 34, 359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Jágerská, H. Zhang, N. L. Thomas, and R. Houdré, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thyrrestrup, H.

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, Science 327, 1352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Rossum, M. C. W.

Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen and M. C. W. van Rossum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2674 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, Nat. Photonics 1, 65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Xia, F.

Xu, Y.

Yamada, K.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.-H.

S. Mookherjea, J. S. Park, S.-H. Yang, and P. R. Bandaru, Nat. Photonics 2, 90 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Yokohama, I.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zabelin, V.

Zhang, H.

J. Jágerská, H. Zhang, N. L. Thomas, and R. Houdré, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Jágerská, H. Zhang, N. L. Thomas, and R. Houdré, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

T. F. Krauss, J. Phys. D 40, 2666 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, A. Canciamilla, and A. Melloni, Laser Photonics Rev. 6, 74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

H. Takesue, N. Matsuda, W. J. Munro, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, Nat. Commun. 4, 2725 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (5)

S. Mookherjea, J. S. Park, S.-H. Yang, and P. R. Bandaru, Nat. Photonics 2, 90 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, Nat. Photonics 2, 448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, Nat. Photonics 2, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, Nat. Photonics 1, 65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, Nat. Photonics 2, 741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 365 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

E. Kogan and M. Kaveh, Phys. Rev. B 52, R3813 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Stefanou and A. Modinos, Phys. Rev. B 57, 12127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

A. D. Mirlin, R. Pnini, and B. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. E 57, R6285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen and M. C. W. van Rossum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2674 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, Science 327, 1352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

CROW consisting of photonic-crystal mode-gap nanocavities for a cavity pitch Lcc=5a.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Supercell used for the PWE calculation. Dimensions: 10a×2a×5a. (b) The simulated dispersion relation with (black circles) and without (red squares) the nanocavity, i.e., the hole shifts. The blue-hatched region indicates the mode gap of the W0.98 line-defect waveguide. (c) Calculated group index spectra for the CROW (red solid curve) and W0.98 waveguide (black-dashed curve) with a hole radius of 110 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectra of CROWs (red curves). The blue curve shows the data for the reference W1.05 waveguide.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Spectra of output waveforms for the CROWs and the W1.05 reference waveguide. The black dots are the peak temporal positions of each waveform. (b) Extracted group index spectra for various samples and the numerical simulation results.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

PDFs of the normalized intensity transmittance for (a) whole passbands (i.e., wavelength ranges indicated by arrows in each panel of Fig. 3) and (b) 2 nm wide spectral windows centered at each indicated wavelength. The dashed line shows the Rayleigh distribution function.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Representative eye diagrams of the 10Gbit/s NRZ signals transmitted through (a)–(d) the CROW with 200 cavities and (e) the reference waveguides. (f) Closeups of CROW transmission spectra around the measurement wavelengths.

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