Abstract

Manufacturing efficient and broadband optics is of high technological importance for various applications in all wavelength regimes. Particularly in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectra, this becomes challenging due to the involved atomic absorption edges that rapidly change the optical constants in these ranges. Here we demonstrate a new interference lithography grating mask that can be used for nanopatterning in this spectral range. We demonstrate photolithography with cutting-edge resolution at 6.5 and 13.5 nm wavelengths, relevant to the semiconductor industry, as well as using 2.5 and 4.5 nm wavelength for patterning thick photoresists and fabricating high-aspect-ratio metal nanostructures for plasmonics and sensing applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Tallents, E. Wagenaars, and G. Pert, Nat. Photonics 4, 809 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. H. Bruning, Proc. SPIE 6520, 652004 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Heuberger, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 107 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Terhalle, A. Langner, B. Päivänranta, and Y. Ekinci, Proc. SPIE 8102, 81020V (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Langner, B. Päivänranta, B. Terhalle, and Y. Ekinci, Nanotechnology 23, 105303 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Ekinci, M. Vockenhuber, M. Hojeij, L. Wang, and N. Mojarad, Proc. SPIE 8679, 867910 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. K. Malek and V. Saile, Microelectron. J. 35, 131 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. T. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University, 2000).
  10. H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. http://photonics.intec.ugent.be/research/facilities/design/rodis/ .
  12. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71, 811 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/ .
  14. Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, C. Padeste, J. Gobrecht, M. P. Stoykovich, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 700 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, L. Juschkin, C. Dittberner, K. Bergmann, J. Moers, G. Panaitov, S. Trellenkamp, P. Loosen, and D. Grutzmacher, Thin Solid Films 520, 5080 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ekinci, M. Vockenhuber, M. Hojeij, L. Wang, and N. Mojarad, Proc. SPIE 8679, 867910 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

A. Langner, B. Päivänranta, B. Terhalle, and Y. Ekinci, Nanotechnology 23, 105303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, L. Juschkin, C. Dittberner, K. Bergmann, J. Moers, G. Panaitov, S. Trellenkamp, P. Loosen, and D. Grutzmacher, Thin Solid Films 520, 5080 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

B. Terhalle, A. Langner, B. Päivänranta, and Y. Ekinci, Proc. SPIE 8102, 81020V (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

G. Tallents, E. Wagenaars, and G. Pert, Nat. Photonics 4, 809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. H. Bruning, Proc. SPIE 6520, 652004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, C. Padeste, J. Gobrecht, M. P. Stoykovich, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. K. Malek and V. Saile, Microelectron. J. 35, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. Heuberger, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 107 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71, 811 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

D. T. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University, 2000).

Bergmann, K.

S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, L. Juschkin, C. Dittberner, K. Bergmann, J. Moers, G. Panaitov, S. Trellenkamp, P. Loosen, and D. Grutzmacher, Thin Solid Films 520, 5080 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brose, S.

S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, L. Juschkin, C. Dittberner, K. Bergmann, J. Moers, G. Panaitov, S. Trellenkamp, P. Loosen, and D. Grutzmacher, Thin Solid Films 520, 5080 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bruning, J. H.

J. H. Bruning, Proc. SPIE 6520, 652004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cerrina, F.

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Danylyuk, S.

S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, L. Juschkin, C. Dittberner, K. Bergmann, J. Moers, G. Panaitov, S. Trellenkamp, P. Loosen, and D. Grutzmacher, Thin Solid Films 520, 5080 (2012).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dittberner, C.

S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, L. Juschkin, C. Dittberner, K. Bergmann, J. Moers, G. Panaitov, S. Trellenkamp, P. Loosen, and D. Grutzmacher, Thin Solid Films 520, 5080 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Droste, R.

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ekinci, Y.

Y. Ekinci, M. Vockenhuber, M. Hojeij, L. Wang, and N. Mojarad, Proc. SPIE 8679, 867910 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Langner, B. Päivänranta, B. Terhalle, and Y. Ekinci, Nanotechnology 23, 105303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Terhalle, A. Langner, B. Päivänranta, and Y. Ekinci, Proc. SPIE 8102, 81020V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, C. Padeste, J. Gobrecht, M. P. Stoykovich, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71, 811 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gobrecht, J.

Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, C. Padeste, J. Gobrecht, M. P. Stoykovich, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Golovkina, V.

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grutzmacher, D.

S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, L. Juschkin, C. Dittberner, K. Bergmann, J. Moers, G. Panaitov, S. Trellenkamp, P. Loosen, and D. Grutzmacher, Thin Solid Films 520, 5080 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Harned, N.

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Heuberger, A.

A. Heuberger, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 107 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hojeij, M.

Y. Ekinci, M. Vockenhuber, M. Hojeij, L. Wang, and N. Mojarad, Proc. SPIE 8679, 867910 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Juschkin, L.

S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, L. Juschkin, C. Dittberner, K. Bergmann, J. Moers, G. Panaitov, S. Trellenkamp, P. Loosen, and D. Grutzmacher, Thin Solid Films 520, 5080 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kazinczi, R.

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. O.

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kool, R.

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kuerz, P.

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Langner, A.

A. Langner, B. Päivänranta, B. Terhalle, and Y. Ekinci, Nanotechnology 23, 105303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Terhalle, A. Langner, B. Päivänranta, and Y. Ekinci, Proc. SPIE 8102, 81020V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lok, S.

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Loosen, P.

S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, L. Juschkin, C. Dittberner, K. Bergmann, J. Moers, G. Panaitov, S. Trellenkamp, P. Loosen, and D. Grutzmacher, Thin Solid Films 520, 5080 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lowisch, M.

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Malek, C. K.

C. K. Malek and V. Saile, Microelectron. J. 35, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, H.

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Meiling, H.

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moers, J.

S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, L. Juschkin, C. Dittberner, K. Bergmann, J. Moers, G. Panaitov, S. Trellenkamp, P. Loosen, and D. Grutzmacher, Thin Solid Films 520, 5080 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71, 811 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mojarad, N.

Y. Ekinci, M. Vockenhuber, M. Hojeij, L. Wang, and N. Mojarad, Proc. SPIE 8679, 867910 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nealey, P. F.

Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, C. Padeste, J. Gobrecht, M. P. Stoykovich, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ockwell, D.

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Padeste, C.

Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, C. Padeste, J. Gobrecht, M. P. Stoykovich, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Päivänranta, B.

A. Langner, B. Päivänranta, B. Terhalle, and Y. Ekinci, Nanotechnology 23, 105303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Terhalle, A. Langner, B. Päivänranta, and Y. Ekinci, Proc. SPIE 8102, 81020V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Panaitov, G.

S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, L. Juschkin, C. Dittberner, K. Bergmann, J. Moers, G. Panaitov, S. Trellenkamp, P. Loosen, and D. Grutzmacher, Thin Solid Films 520, 5080 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peeters, R.

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pert, G.

G. Tallents, E. Wagenaars, and G. Pert, Nat. Photonics 4, 809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saile, V.

C. K. Malek and V. Saile, Microelectron. J. 35, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schiffelers, G.

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Solak, H. H.

Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, C. Padeste, J. Gobrecht, M. P. Stoykovich, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stoeldraijer, J.

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stoykovich, M. P.

Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, C. Padeste, J. Gobrecht, M. P. Stoykovich, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tallents, G.

G. Tallents, E. Wagenaars, and G. Pert, Nat. Photonics 4, 809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Terhalle, B.

A. Langner, B. Päivänranta, B. Terhalle, and Y. Ekinci, Nanotechnology 23, 105303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Terhalle, A. Langner, B. Päivänranta, and Y. Ekinci, Proc. SPIE 8102, 81020V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trellenkamp, S.

S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, L. Juschkin, C. Dittberner, K. Bergmann, J. Moers, G. Panaitov, S. Trellenkamp, P. Loosen, and D. Grutzmacher, Thin Solid Films 520, 5080 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van Alphen, E.

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

van der Horst, J.

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

van Setten, E.

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vockenhuber, M.

Y. Ekinci, M. Vockenhuber, M. Hojeij, L. Wang, and N. Mojarad, Proc. SPIE 8679, 867910 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wagenaars, E.

G. Tallents, E. Wagenaars, and G. Pert, Nat. Photonics 4, 809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Y. Ekinci, M. Vockenhuber, M. Hojeij, L. Wang, and N. Mojarad, Proc. SPIE 8679, 867910 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 71, 811 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

A. Heuberger, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 107 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

H. H. Solak, C. David, J. Gobrecht, V. Golovkina, F. Cerrina, S. O. Kim, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, C. Padeste, J. Gobrecht, M. P. Stoykovich, and P. F. Nealey, Microelectron. Eng. 84, 700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. J. (1)

C. K. Malek and V. Saile, Microelectron. J. 35, 131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

A. Langner, B. Päivänranta, B. Terhalle, and Y. Ekinci, Nanotechnology 23, 105303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. Tallents, E. Wagenaars, and G. Pert, Nat. Photonics 4, 809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

J. H. Bruning, Proc. SPIE 6520, 652004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Peeters, S. Lok, E. van Alphen, N. Harned, P. Kuerz, M. Lowisch, H. Meijer, D. Ockwell, E. van Setten, G. Schiffelers, J. van der Horst, J. Stoeldraijer, R. Kazinczi, R. Droste, H. Meiling, and R. Kool, Proc. SPIE 8679, 86791F (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Terhalle, A. Langner, B. Päivänranta, and Y. Ekinci, Proc. SPIE 8102, 81020V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ekinci, M. Vockenhuber, M. Hojeij, L. Wang, and N. Mojarad, Proc. SPIE 8679, 867910 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, L. Juschkin, C. Dittberner, K. Bergmann, J. Moers, G. Panaitov, S. Trellenkamp, P. Loosen, and D. Grutzmacher, Thin Solid Films 520, 5080 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

http://photonics.intec.ugent.be/research/facilities/design/rodis/ .

http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/ .

D. T. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University, 2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the broadband mask. (b) Principle of IL. (c) Transmittance spectra of the used materials. The Au spectrum is plotted in log scale on the right axis. Optical constants were taken from [13].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Process flow of the mask fabrication.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

First-order diffraction efficiency as a function of hHSQ and λ for masks with (a) Pg=280nm and (b) Pg=88nm. Dashed lines indicate wavelengths used for lithography (gray) and different absorption edges (white). Diffraction efficiency as a function of hHSQ at (c) λC (green) and λO (blue) at Pg=280nm (solid) and Pg=360nm (dashed), and (d) EUV (black) and BEUV (red) at Pg=88nm (solid) and Pg=140nm (dashed). Grating fill factor of 0.5 was assumed for all calculations. (e) Normalized thickness dependence on Dm at EUV (squares) and BEUV (triangles). Left, open frame exposures. Middle and right, first-order diffraction of Pg=140nm (blue) and Pg=88nm (green) gratings.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM images of HP=22nm line/space patterns of different photoresists exposed at EUV (top) and BEUV (bottom). Yellow lines show the analyzed profile, overlaid on the corresponding lines and the average LER is stated below each image.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Schematic of the fabrication process of HAR gold nanostructures. SEM images of (b) PMMA and (c) HSQ hole arrays and gold structures made from them, (e) and (f). (d) HSQ pillars and (g) HP=90nm gold line/space structures. (b) and (c) are top–down micrographs while the others were obtained at tilted angles. The used Dm of each pattern is stated above it. The 200 nm scale bar holds true for all SEM images.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured and Calculated Values of η at EUV and BEUV

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

HP=λ4sinθ=Pg4,

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