Abstract

A MHz-bandwidth thermo-optical (TO) plasmonic switch operating at telecommunication wavelengths and based on a hybrid solid-state silicon-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide design is demonstrated numerically. The nanosecond (ns) TO response of the switch is due to the high thermal conductivities of the employed materials and we demonstrate specifically a 10 dB extinction ratio in the time-dependent switch transmission which features a pulsed 1 ns rise time followed by a 25 ns fall time when the switch is photo-thermally activated by a ns pulse at 532 nm wavelength.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, Mater. Today 9(7–8), 20 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Tsilipakos, T. V. Yioultsis, and E. E. Kriezis, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 093109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (5)

2012 (2)

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, ACS Nano 6, 2550 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Pitilakis, O. Tsilipakos, and E. E. Kriezis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

2009 (1)

O. Tsilipakos, T. V. Yioultsis, and E. E. Kriezis, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, Nat. Photonics 2, 242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Dragoi, G. Mittendorfer, C. Thanner, and P. Lindner, Microsyst. Technol. 14, 509 (2008).

2006 (3)

2004 (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. Chen and P. Hui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

Aitchison, J. S.

Alam, M. Z.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, T. B.

Apostolopoulos, D.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Atabaki, A. H.

Avramopoulos, H.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baus, M.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

Bernardin, T.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

J. Gosciniak and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Sci. Rep. 3, 1803 (2013).

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Opt. Express 18, 1207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, Mater. Today 9(7–8), 20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caspers, J. N.

Chandran, A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, Mater. Today 9(7–8), 20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

G. Chen and P. Hui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, ACS Nano 6, 2550 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, ACS Nano 6, 2550 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cluzel, B.

Dereux, A.

J.-C. Weeber, T. Bernardin, M. G. Nielsen, K. Hassan, S. Kaya, J. Fatome, C. Finot, A. Dereux, and N. Pleros, Opt. Express 21, 27291 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Pitilakis, O. Tsilipakos, and E. E. Kriezis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Opt. Express 18, 1207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dragoi, V.

V. Dragoi, G. Mittendorfer, C. Thanner, and P. Lindner, Microsyst. Technol. 14, 509 (2008).

Eftekhar, A. A.

Fatome, J.

Finot, C.

Gagnon, G.

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gosciniak, J.

Green, W. M. J.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, Nat. Photonics 2, 242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hassan, K.

J.-C. Weeber, T. Bernardin, M. G. Nielsen, K. Hassan, S. Kaya, J. Fatome, C. Finot, A. Dereux, and N. Pleros, Opt. Express 21, 27291 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaya, J.-C. Weeber, F. Zacharatos, K. Hassan, T. Bernardin, B. Cluzel, J. Fatome, and C. Finot, Opt. Express 21, 22269 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Pitilakis, O. Tsilipakos, and E. E. Kriezis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hui, P.

G. Chen and P. Hui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iodice, M.

Jing, E.

E. Jing, B. Xiong, and Y. Wang, J. Micromech. Microeng. 20, 095014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kalavrouziotis, D.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaya, S.

Kjelstrup-Hansen, J.

Krasavin, A. V.

Kriezis, E. E.

K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Pitilakis, O. Tsilipakos, and E. E. Kriezis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Tsilipakos, T. V. Yioultsis, and E. E. Kriezis, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lahoud, N.

Lindner, P.

V. Dragoi, G. Mittendorfer, C. Thanner, and P. Lindner, Microsyst. Technol. 14, 509 (2008).

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Markey, L.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Pitilakis, O. Tsilipakos, and E. E. Kriezis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, Opt. Express 18, 1207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mattiussi, G. A.

Mazzi, G.

Meier, J.

Mittendorfer, G.

V. Dragoi, G. Mittendorfer, C. Thanner, and P. Lindner, Microsyst. Technol. 14, 509 (2008).

Mojahedi, M.

Nielsen, M. G.

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Papaioannou, S.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pitilakis, A.

K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Pitilakis, O. Tsilipakos, and E. E. Kriezis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pleros, N.

J.-C. Weeber, T. Bernardin, M. G. Nielsen, K. Hassan, S. Kaya, J. Fatome, C. Finot, A. Dereux, and N. Pleros, Opt. Express 21, 27291 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, ACS Nano 6, 2550 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, Mater. Today 9(7–8), 20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sirleto, L.

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tekin, T.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thanner, C.

V. Dragoi, G. Mittendorfer, C. Thanner, and P. Lindner, Microsyst. Technol. 14, 509 (2008).

Tsilipakos, O.

K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Pitilakis, O. Tsilipakos, and E. E. Kriezis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Tsilipakos, T. V. Yioultsis, and E. E. Kriezis, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, Nat. Photonics 2, 242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

Vyrsokinos, K.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

E. Jing, B. Xiong, and Y. Wang, J. Micromech. Microeng. 20, 095014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J.-C.

S. Kaya, J.-C. Weeber, F. Zacharatos, K. Hassan, T. Bernardin, B. Cluzel, J. Fatome, and C. Finot, Opt. Express 21, 22269 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, T. Bernardin, M. G. Nielsen, K. Hassan, S. Kaya, J. Fatome, C. Finot, A. Dereux, and N. Pleros, Opt. Express 21, 27291 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Pitilakis, O. Tsilipakos, and E. E. Kriezis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, Nat. Photonics 2, 242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, B.

E. Jing, B. Xiong, and Y. Wang, J. Micromech. Microeng. 20, 095014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, ACS Nano 6, 2550 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

Yioultsis, T. V.

O. Tsilipakos, T. V. Yioultsis, and E. E. Kriezis, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zacharatos, F.

Zayats, A. V.

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zia, R.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, Mater. Today 9(7–8), 20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, ACS Nano 6, 2550 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Pitilakis, O. Tsilipakos, and E. E. Kriezis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen and P. Hui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

O. Tsilipakos, T. V. Yioultsis, and E. E. Kriezis, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

E. Jing, B. Xiong, and Y. Wang, J. Micromech. Microeng. 20, 095014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today (1)

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, Mater. Today 9(7–8), 20 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Microsyst. Technol. (1)

V. Dragoi, G. Mittendorfer, C. Thanner, and P. Lindner, Microsyst. Technol. 14, 509 (2008).

Nat. Photonics (2)

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, Nat. Photonics 2, 242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Rep. (2)

J. Gosciniak and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Sci. Rep. 3, 1803 (2013).

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, Sci. Rep. 2, 652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SLSPPW geometry with specified dimensions and materials. (b) and (c) Time-averaged power flow distributions in the z direction, Pz, for the (b) TM00-mode and (c) TE00-mode when w=375nm and nSi=3.45. (d) ΔneffTE and ΔneffTM (left axis) due to an average temperature increase ΔT=50K in the waveguide and propagation lengths LpTE and LpTM evaluated at room temperature T0=300K (right axis) as a function of waveguide width w.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Intensity enhancement due to the 532 nm Gaussian pulse with amplitude E0=E0x^. (b) Induced heat source density. (c) and (d) Temperature increase distributions at time (c) t=5.8ns (pulse arrival time t0=5ns) and (d) t=20ns.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) ΔTavg in the silicon ridge (solid curve), MgF2 spacer (dashed curve), and gold film (dashed–dotted curve) due to the heat source density QE(r,t). (b) Δneff as a function of time for the TE00-mode (dashed curve) and TM00-mode (solid curve) when the SLSPPW spacer and ridge have been partitioned into four domains.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Sketch of the switch with gap g=150nm, radius R=1.0μm, and coupler length Lc=1.6μm. A2 and A1 are planes at which the output and input power, respectively, in the z direction are integrated with their ratio giving the transmission, T. (b) Transmission spectrum in the unheated and heated state when ΔT=100K. (c) and (d) Re(Ex); distribution in the midplane of the silicon ridge for λ0=1590nm in the (c) unheated and (d) heated state. (e) Transmission as function of time when λ0=1590nm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Material Constants Used in the Numerical Modelinga

Equations (2)

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ρ(r)Cp(r)T(r,t)t=QE(r,t)+·(k(r)T(r,t)),
QE(r,t)=ω2ε0ε|E(r,t)|2,

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