Abstract

We present a microstructured polymer fiber dedicated to long period grating (LPGs) inscription using a focused UV laser beam. The core and the microstructured cladding of the developed fiber are made of pure poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The external layer of the solid part of the cladding has increased UV absorption due to doping with trans-4-stilbenemethanol, which shows an absorption band at around 310 nm related to trans-cis photoisomerization. We present transmission characteristics of LPGs fabricated in this fiber using the point-by-point inscription technique with a He–Cd laser beam of 325 nm wavelength. We also demonstrate that in the proposed fiber, the fabrication process is shortened six times compared to pure PMMA fibers. Moreover, we report on temperature response and long-term stability of the fabricated gratings.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. C. J. Large, J. Moran, and L. Ye, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034014 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Lwin, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, and M. C. J. Large, Proc. SPIE 7753, 775396 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. P. Johnson, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, Electron. Lett. 46, 1217 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Yuan, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 401 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andersen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Commun. 284, 176 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, D. Kowal, M. K. Szczurowski, P. Mergo, and W. Urbanczyk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 496 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. E. Carroll, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Opt. Express 15, 8844 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Sáez-Rodríguez, J. L. Cruz, I. Johnson, D. J. Webb, M. C. J. Large, and A. Argyros, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1169 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Zhang, D. J. Webb, and G.-D. Peng, Opt. Lett. 37, 1370 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Zhang, D. J. Webb, and G.-D. Peng, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 1090 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Yuan, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, H. K. Rasmussen, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, Opt. Express 19, 19731 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. P. Hiscocks, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Opt. Express 14, 4644 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Li, H. Y. Tam, L. Xu, and Q. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 30, 1117 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Wochnowski, S. Metev, and G. Sepold, Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 706 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, and W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. Bowden, E. A. Chandross, and I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Opt. 13, 112 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J.-M. Yu, X.-M. Tao, and H.-W. Tam, Opt. Lett. 29, 156 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Luo, Q. Zhang, H. Liu, and G.-D. Peng, Opt. Lett. 35, 751 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, H. Rasmussen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, Opt. Lett. 38, 3769 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, D. Kowal, M. K. Szczurowski, P. Mergo, and W. Urbanczyk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 496 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, H. Rasmussen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, Opt. Lett. 38, 3769 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andersen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Commun. 284, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Lwin, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, and M. C. J. Large, Proc. SPIE 7753, 775396 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Yuan, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, H. K. Rasmussen, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, Opt. Express 19, 19731 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

Y. Luo, Q. Zhang, H. Liu, and G.-D. Peng, Opt. Lett. 35, 751 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Johnson, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, Electron. Lett. 46, 1217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Sáez-Rodríguez, J. L. Cruz, I. Johnson, D. J. Webb, M. C. J. Large, and A. Argyros, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. C. J. Large, J. Moran, and L. Ye, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

C. Wochnowski, S. Metev, and G. Sepold, Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 706 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1970 (1)

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, and W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, S.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andersen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Commun. 284, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Argyros, A.

R. Lwin, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, and M. C. J. Large, Proc. SPIE 7753, 775396 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Sáez-Rodríguez, J. L. Cruz, I. Johnson, D. J. Webb, M. C. J. Large, and A. Argyros, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Carroll, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Opt. Express 15, 8844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hiscocks, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Opt. Express 14, 4644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bache, M.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andersen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Commun. 284, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, H. Rasmussen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, Opt. Lett. 38, 3769 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Yuan, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, H. K. Rasmussen, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, Opt. Express 19, 19731 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andersen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Commun. 284, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, M. J.

Carroll, K. E.

Chandross, E. A.

M. J. Bowden, E. A. Chandross, and I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Opt. 13, 112 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, and W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

D. Sáez-Rodríguez, J. L. Cruz, I. Johnson, D. J. Webb, M. C. J. Large, and A. Argyros, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, and W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, K. S.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andersen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Commun. 284, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Herholdt-Rasmussen, N.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andersen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Commun. 284, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hiscocks, M. P.

Jacobsen, T.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andersen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Commun. 284, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, I.

D. Sáez-Rodríguez, J. L. Cruz, I. Johnson, D. J. Webb, M. C. J. Large, and A. Argyros, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, I. P.

I. P. Johnson, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, Electron. Lett. 46, 1217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kalli, K.

Kaminow, I. P.

M. J. Bowden, E. A. Chandross, and I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Opt. 13, 112 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, and W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Khan, L.

Kowal, D.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, D. Kowal, M. K. Szczurowski, P. Mergo, and W. Urbanczyk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 496 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Large, M. C. J.

R. Lwin, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, and M. C. J. Large, Proc. SPIE 7753, 775396 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Sáez-Rodríguez, J. L. Cruz, I. Johnson, D. J. Webb, M. C. J. Large, and A. Argyros, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. J. Large, J. Moran, and L. Ye, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Carroll, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Opt. Express 15, 8844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hiscocks, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, Opt. Express 14, 4644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leon-Saval, S. G.

R. Lwin, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, and M. C. J. Large, Proc. SPIE 7753, 775396 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Liu, H.

Luo, Y.

Lwin, R.

R. Lwin, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, and M. C. J. Large, Proc. SPIE 7753, 775396 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mergo, P.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, D. Kowal, M. K. Szczurowski, P. Mergo, and W. Urbanczyk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 496 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Metev, S.

C. Wochnowski, S. Metev, and G. Sepold, Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 706 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moran, J.

M. C. J. Large, J. Moran, and L. Ye, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, F. K.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andersen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Commun. 284, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, K.

Peng, G.-D.

Rasmussen, H.

Rasmussen, H. K.

Rose, B.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andersen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Commun. 284, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sáez-Rodríguez, D.

D. Sáez-Rodríguez, K. Nielsen, H. Rasmussen, O. Bang, and D. J. Webb, Opt. Lett. 38, 3769 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Sáez-Rodríguez, J. L. Cruz, I. Johnson, D. J. Webb, M. C. J. Large, and A. Argyros, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sepold, G.

C. Wochnowski, S. Metev, and G. Sepold, Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 706 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Silfvast, W. T.

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, and W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Sørensen, O. B.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andersen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Commun. 284, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Statkiewicz-Barabach, G.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, D. Kowal, M. K. Szczurowski, P. Mergo, and W. Urbanczyk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 496 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stefani, A.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Yuan, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, H. K. Rasmussen, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, Opt. Express 19, 19731 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andersen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Commun. 284, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Szczurowski, M. K.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, D. Kowal, M. K. Szczurowski, P. Mergo, and W. Urbanczyk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 496 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

Tam, H.-W.

Tao, X.-M.

Tomlinson, W. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, and W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Urbanczyk, W.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, D. Kowal, M. K. Szczurowski, P. Mergo, and W. Urbanczyk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 496 (2013).
[CrossRef]

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

Webb, D. J.

Wochnowski, C.

C. Wochnowski, S. Metev, and G. Sepold, Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 706 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Ye, L.

M. C. J. Large, J. Moran, and L. Ye, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.-M.

Yuan, W.

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Yuan, L. Khan, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, H. K. Rasmussen, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, Opt. Express 19, 19731 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andersen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Commun. 284, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, W.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, and W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

C. Wochnowski, S. Metev, and G. Sepold, Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 706 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

I. P. Johnson, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, Electron. Lett. 46, 1217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, and O. Bang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, D. Kowal, M. K. Szczurowski, P. Mergo, and W. Urbanczyk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 496 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

D. Sáez-Rodríguez, J. L. Cruz, I. Johnson, D. J. Webb, M. C. J. Large, and A. Argyros, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. C. J. Large, J. Moran, and L. Ye, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 034014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andersen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, and O. Bang, Opt. Commun. 284, 176 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Lwin, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, and M. C. J. Large, Proc. SPIE 7753, 775396 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross-section of the microstructured polymer fiber for LPGs inscription with the external layer doped with trans-4-stilbenemethanol.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured attenuation in the microstructured polymer fiber with doped external layer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic view of a system for LPGs fabrication using two symmetrical UV beams.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission spectra registered during the fabrication of the LPG in the microstructured polymer fiber with a doped external layer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Deformations of the doped external layer at UV irradiated regions.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Long-term stability of the LPG inscribed in the microstructured polymer fiber with a doped external layer.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Transmission spectra registered during the inscription of the LPG in a pure PMMA microstructured fiber of the same geometry.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Temperature response of the LPG inscribed in the microstructured polymer fiber with a doped external layer.

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